40.3 Other Endocrine Glands and Hormones -- Part 1
There are many side effects of using human GH in this manner, such as joint and muscle pain, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
Provide a function for each of the hormones produced by the posterior pituitary.
List the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary.
Distinguish between the functions of T3 and T4.
The causes and major symptoms of medical conditions are associated with the endocrine system.
In this section, we talk about the tissues that produce hormones secondarily.
The hormones in these tissues play a role in health.
The hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and (T4) are produced by a large number of follicles, each made of a small spherical structure.
The cells that reside outside of the follicles produce a hormone.
The parathyroid glands are embedded in the neck.
The hormones increase the rate of metabolism.
Most of the cells of the body are stimulated to metabolize at a faster rate because they don't have a single target organ.
More energy is used.
Even though T3 and T4 are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, theirreceptor is actually located inside cells, like a steroid hormone.
T3 and T4 can be produced by the thyroid gland.
The amount of iodine found in the blood is less than 25 times.
T3 and T4 can't be produced if a person consumes an insufficient amount of iodine.
This results in stimulation of the thyroid by the pituitary.
In the 1920s, scientists discovered that the use of iodized salt allowed the thyroid to produce hormones that help prevent endemic goiter.
One-third of the world's population is still suffering from some degree of iodine deficiency, which is extremely common in some parts of the world.
A lack of iui in the diet can cause an enlarged thyroid.
The thyroid can't produce its hormones because of the absence of iodine, and the anterior pituitary stimulation causes it to enlarge.
People who develop hypothyroidism do not grow and develop as others do.
Intellectual disability is also likely if medical treatment is not begun.
In exophthalmic goiter, the eye protrudes because of a problem with the eye sockets.
Babies with this condition are short and stocky.
The causes vary from a deficiency in iodine in the pregnant mother to genetic defects affecting the production of the hormones.
It is easy to treat a deficiency of iodine by ensuring appropriate levels of consumption.
Congenital hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disability in the world according to the American Thyroid Association.
Some women in the United States may have mild iodine deficiency during their pregnancies, which may lead to low intelligence in their children.
It is possible to cure problems with the thyroid gland, but it must begin as early as possible to avoid permanent stunted growth and intellectual disability.
Hypothyroidism can also occur in adults when the immune system produces antibodies that destroy the thyroid glands.
Body functions and appearance are usually restored by the administration of thyroxine.
Graves disease causes the overproduction of T3 and T4 by mimicking the effect of the TSH receptor on the thyroid follicular cells.
Exophthalmia is a sign of Graves disease and is caused by inflammation of the muscles that move the eyes.
The patient is usually sleepy and becomes jittery.
Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents, and it is five to ten times more common in females.
There are drugs that block the absorption of the radioactive substance in the body, surgical removal of part or all of the body, and the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy the excess tissue.
Hyperthyroidism can be caused by cancer of the endocrine system.
A lump in the Thyroid Cancer is usually detected during a physical examination.
The surgery is combined with the administration of radioactive iodine.
Most patients have an excellent chance of survival.
Calcium is involved in both nervous and muscle contraction.
Maintaining healthy bones and teeth is also important.
The blood calcium level is regulated by a hormone called calcitonin.
The activity and number of osteoclasts are temporarily reduced.
The release of calcitonin is slowed when the blood calcium is normal.