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22.4 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
There are five atoms in the longest continuous carbon chain.
There are two substituents of this compound.
The position of each substituent is indicated by a number.
A double bond between carbon atoms is found in Alkenes.
There is at least one triple bond in Alkynes.
There is a ripening agent in bananas.
The ripening of a banana emits ethene.
The bananas in the cluster are ripening.
Banana farmers usually pick green bananas.
When bananas arrive at their destination, they aregassed with ethene to ripening.
The names and structures of other alkenes are listed in Table 22.7 Most of them do not have uses other than in fuels.
Depending on the position of the double bond, these alkenes have one or more isomers.
The double bond in the 1 position is the first carbon-carbon bond of the chain.
ethyne is a linear molecule because of the geometry of the carbon atoms.
Ethyne is used for welding torches.
The table shows the names and structures of other alkynes.
Like alkenes, the alkynes do not have a lot of uses other than as minority components of gasoline.
The double or triple bond is given the lowest possible number using the base chain.
The double or triple bond is the lowest pure oxygen to produce the very hot possible number, so we insert a number just before the base name.
Depending on the position of the triple bond, these alkynes have one or more isomers.
The triple bond in the 1 position is the first carbon-carbon bond of the chain.
There are two substituents.
The double bond is equidistant from the ends.
There are two CH2 groups at positions 3 and 4.
The naming procedure applies because this compound contains two identical substituents.
You can indicate the position of each substituent with a number.
The position of the double bond should be specified just before the base name.
List both of them in alphabetical order.
Because this compound is an alkyne, specify the position of the triple bond with a number just before the base name.
A double bond has a different degree of rotation than a single bond.
The rotation of the sigma single bond was relatively free.
The properties of the two forms of 1,2-dichloroethene are shown in Table 22.9.
In alkenes, cis-trans isomerism is common.
The two isomers of 1,2-dichloroethene have different physical properties.
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