The slave trade to the Islamic states of North Africa, the Middle East, and India began after 1500.
The major destinations of the slave trade were the West Indies and Brazil.
The voyage lasting from six to ten weeks led to high mortalities.
In the last half of the 18th century, slave traders succeeded in lowering mortality from 23 percent on voyages before 1700 to half that in the last half of the 17th century.
The failed escapes contributed to mortality.
Some enslaved Africans tried to escape when opportunities presented themselves.
Slave traders kept male slaves below deck as a precautionary measure, and banks, stock markets, and insurance companies helped Euro during most of the voyage.
In any event, "mutinies" policies to monopolize the economic benefits from colonial were not very successful.
The Atlantic Circuit was a network of trade networks that contributed to the high mortality of the Middle Passage.
Africa and the Western Hemisphere were in Europe.
Conditions on the slave ships were not good and some slaves developed deep psychological depression.
The crews attempted mortality rates were high.
The Atlantic System and Africa willed themselves to death.
Many ordinary seamen did not want to work in the slave trade because of the dangers.
Slave ships had cruel and brutal officers and crews on them.
The majority of deaths in the Middle Passage were the result of disease.
Many deaths were caused by contaminated food and water.
Some died of diseases that were carried on board by slaves or crew members.
The diseases spread quickly in the crowded and unsanitary confines of the ships, claiming the lives of slaves already physically weakened and mentally traumatised.
Crew members were exposed to the same diseases.
It is a measure of the callousness of the age and the cheapness of European labor that over the course of a round-trip voyage from Europe the proportion of crew deaths could be as high as the slave deaths.
During the Middle Passage and under the harsh conditions of plantation slavery, the Atlantic system took a terrible toll on African lives.
Many Africans died when they were marched to African ports for sale.
The effects on Africa of these losses and other aspects of the slave trade have been the subject of considerable historical debate.
The trade's impact was determined by the intensity and terms of different African regions' involvement.
Some Africans profited from the trade by capturing and selling slaves, so any assessment of the Atlantic system's effects in Africa must take that into account.
They chained the slaves together and bartered them to the European slavers for trade goods.
The effects on the enslaver were different from those on the enslaved.
Comparisons between the effects of Islamic contacts and the Atlantic system's effects in subSaharan Africa is what leads to a broader understanding of the system.
Early European visitors to Africa's Atlantic coast were more interested in trading than in colonizing the continent, as shown in Chapter 16.
The pattern continued as the Africa trade grew.
The slave trade did not lead to European colonization because African kings and merchants sold slaves and goods at many coastal sites.
The transition to slave trading was gradual.
Goods such as gold, ivory, and timber remained important even as slaves became the most valuable export.
The Royal African Company made 40 percent of its profits from gold, ivory, and forest products.
Even at the peak of the trade, nonslave exports were the main source of income in some parts of West Africa.
It was hard to purchase a cargo from a ship that had low quality goods or was not suited to local tastes.
The color and shape of beads, the pattern of textiles, the type of guns, and the sort of metals that were in demand on each section of the coast were noted in European guidebooks to the African trade.
Textile, hardware, and guns were in high demand in Africa.
60 percent of the goods the Royal African Company traded in West Africa were Indian and European textiles, and 30 percent were hardware and weaponry.
Tobacco and rum from the Americas became welcome imports in the 18th century.
As the demand for slaves increased, so did their price in Africa.
The rise of powerful states and trading communities was promoted by the Atlantic and trans-Saharan Interactive Map trade.
The political dangers of such relations were shown by the invasions of Songhai and Luanda.
Bargaining strength was reduced because Europeans established their own trading "castles" along the Gold Coast.
Before buying slaves at Whydah, his agents had to pay a substantial customs duty and then pay a premium price for the slaves.
Whydah was a small kingdom, controlling only the port and its immediate hinterland.
Most of the economies of these large and populous states had a relatively modest part in overseas trade.
Oyo and Asante were not dependent on external trade and grew more powerful from it.
Dahomey was forced to pay an annual tribute to keep its independence after Oyo kingdom overran it in 1730.
In his day, he dismissed misconcep tions in Europe.
In 1700, he wrote a letter to a friend about the idea of parents selling their children, men, and wives to other people.
Most of the slaves that are offered to us are prisoners of war, which are sold by the victors as their own.
It is harder to prove that capturing slaves for export was a main cause of wars than it is to confirm that prisoners of war were the most common source of slaves.
There are indications that captives taken in the later and more peripheral stages of these wars were exported overseas, but it would seem that the main impetus of conquest was only incidentally concerned with the slave-trade.
Scottish and Irish prisoners were sentenced to forced labor in the West Indies by 3 English rulers.
African and European prisoners did not share the same view of legitimate actions.
In contrast to the Gold and Slave Coasts, where strong kingdoms dominated, the interior of the Bight of Biafra contained no large states.
European traders were given rich presents by the merchant princes of the coastal ports.
European slave traders at the coast were supplied by regional merchants using a network of markets and inland routes.
Some inland markets evolved into giant fairs with different sections for slaves and imported goods as the volume of the Atlantic trade expanded.
The greatest source of slaves for the Atlantic trade was south of the Congo estuary at Angola.
The center of the slave trade to Brazil was founded by the Portuguese in 1575.
The captives are dragged to the port to be shipped to the Western Hemisphere.
Afro-Portuguese traders took large caravans of trade goods inland to exchange for slaves.
Many of the slaves sold at these markets were prisoners of war.
In the late 18th century captured prisoners in wars fought as far away as 600 to 800 miles were taken to the ports for transportation.
The wars of expansion were fought by the Lunda kingdoms.
African wars seem to have led to the sale of prisoners as slaves.
There is a link between the severe droughts of the 17th century and the slave trade of the 18th century.
Powerful African leaders gained control of famished refugees in return for providing them with food and water.
Refugee children and adult women were valued by these leaders as food producers and for reproduction.
Adult male refugees were often sold as slaves because they were more likely to escape or challenge the ruler's authority.
They used the textiles, weapons, and alcohol they received in return for slaves as gifts to attract new followers and cement their loyalty to their allies.
The most successful became heads of powerful new states, stabilizing areas devastated by war and restoring them to their former glory.
European merchants and African elites benefited from the organization of Atlantic trade.
African rulers and merchants exported slaves and other products to get foreign goods that made them wealthier and more powerful.
Most of the slaves were taken in wars related to African state growth.
African states and merchant communities were better able to limit European economic advantages.
The rich and powerful Africans gained from this trade.
Many Africans lost in the exchanges.
The way in which sub-Saharan Africans established new contacts with Europe was similar to the way in which they had relations with the Islamic world.
Between 1500 and 1800, there were striking similarities and differences in Africans' political, commercial, and cultural interactions.
The three and a half centuries of contact between Africans and Europeans did not result in much in the way of terri tory.
African rulers kept a close eye on the European trading posts they allowed along the Gold and Slave Coasts.
The Portuguese colony of Luanda and the Dutch East India Company's Cape Colony are the only colonial beachheads on the southern tip of the continent.
The Dutch colony did not export slaves because they were tied to Indian Ocean trade.
In 1793, most of the Cape Colony's 25,750 slaves were from Africa, South Asia, and the East Indies.
In the first century of Islam, North Africa became a part of the world.
The people crossed the Sahara from North Africa or sailed from the Middle East to East Africa.
The new Islamic Ottoman Empire annexed western Sudan in the middle of the 16th century, while Ethiopia lost most of its territory to other Muslim Africa.
The Empire of West Africa pushed its frontier into the Sahara from the south in order to challenge the status quo.
Ruled by an indigenous Muslim dynasty, the Songhai was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
The trans-Saharan trade was led by this expansion.
In 1591, survivors armed with firearms defeated Songhai's army of forty thousand.
Sudan was never able in West Africa.
In order to annex the western Sudan, its forces took slaves and goods from the local population and imposed tolls on trade for the next two centuries.
The Hausa imported and distributed goods similar to those Caliphate conquered them in in that coastal African traders commanded from the Atlantic trade.
The major African exports into the Atlantic were gold, textiles and leather goods.
The size of the slave trade to the Islamic north seems to have been larger than the trade with the US.
About 850,000 slaves were sent to Muslim North Africa between 1600 and 1800.
The Islamic Middle East and India were entered by slaves from sub-Saharan Africa through the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Most African slaves in the Islamic world were soldiers and servants.
In the 17th and 18th century, the rulers of Morocco employed an army of 150,000 African slaves, trusting their loyalty more than that of recruits from their own lands.
African kingdom served wealthy households as concubines, servants and entertainers.
The Atlantic trade had a lower proportion of children than the trans-Saharan southern edge of the Sahara slave trade.
The Muslim state was ruled by the same dynasty since the ninth century.
Guns imported from the Ottoman Empire expanded in the 16th century.
This ancient desert-edge city has been visited by traders for centuries.
The mosques of Timbuktu overlook the ordinary dwellings of the city.
An enormous group of slaves were with him on the last.
Muslims did not see a moral impediment to owning or trading slaves.
Islam considered enslaving "pagans" to be a good act because it brought them into the faith.
Although Islam forbade the enslavement of Muslims, Muslim rulers in Bornu, Hausaland, and elsewhere were not strict observers of that rule.
African people had more exposure to Islamic cultural influences than Europeans.
Scholars and merchants learned how to use the Arabic language to communicate and read the Quran.
Islamic beliefs and practices, as well as Islamic legal and administrative systems, were influential in African trading cities on the southern edge of the Sahara and on the Swahili coast.
Islam had an influence on rural people in some places, but it was still very much an urban religion in 1750.
European cultural influence in Africa was limited.
After contacts with the Portuguese, some coastal Africans showed an interest in Western Christianity, but in the 1700s only one country had a significant number of Christians.
African languages continued to dominate inland trade routes despite the fact that it was useful to learn European languages.
African merchants sent their sons to Europe to learn.
Europeans obtained slaves from sub-Saharan Africa at a larger rate than Muslims.
The Atlantic trade brought about 8 million Africans to the Americas.
2 million African captives were transported through the Islamic trade to North Africa and the Middle East.
Even at the peak of the trade in the 1700s, sub-Saharan Africa's overall population remained very large, and localities that contributed heavily to the slave trade, such as lands near the Slave Coast, suffered acute losses.
The demographic effects of the larger Atlantic trade were reduced by the fact that Africans sold fewer women than men.
The impact of the slave trade was mixed.
Africans were very interested in what they received in exchange for slaves, and their imports reflected their tastes and needs.
The local production of tools and clothing was stimulated by imported products like textiles and metal bars.
European nations and their American colonies received most of the economic benefits from taxing this trade.
European merchants and ship owners made most of the profits from transporting and selling slaves.
The producers of textiles and metal goods profited as well.
African territory was protected from epidemics and Euro Europeans by powerful rulers and merchants.
Relations with Muslim regions were accelerated by this wealth.
He came from a Muslim family.
He stopped for some refreshment from the lands of the Sudan where the people are acknowledged at the house of an old acquaintances, and the weather was going to be Muslims.
Is it legal?
It happened to a company of the Mandingoes.
There are lands in which unbelievers and the Muslim interpreter who is a slave in Maryland are located.
The inhabitants of these lands were shaved.
Job and his man resented the unbelievers' heads and beards because they were under the protection of the Muslims.
There is war between the Muslim sultans of some of these than to make them appear like slaves taken in war.
On the 27th lands and one attacks the other, taking as many prisoners as of February, 1730, they carried them to Captain Pike at Gam he can and selling the captive, who is a free-born Mus bia, who purchased them, on the first of March.
In Hausaland, this is a common practice.
He was the same person that came to trade with them and their situation was the same after what manner he had been taken.
It was a fortnight's and it was possessed.
Job would often leave the cattle, and withdraw into the woods to pray, but a white boy, who was often watched by his father.
The creation of the Atlantic system was made possible by European merchants and investors.
European merchants expanded trade in the century before Columbus, using new credit mechanisms to facilitate transactions.
Arabick to his father, complain to him, or tell him about his misfortunes.
He traveled thro' his master, until he came to the County of ing to part with him, as finding him no Kent, upon Delaware Bay.
He has a law way for his business.
The keeper was told who Job belonged to and what caused him to leave.
Slavery and confinement was not agreeable.
By the 17th century a more confident and adventurous European investor class was ready to promote colonial production and long-distance trade in a more aggressive way.
These new ambitions were supported by the development of banks and stock exchanges.
The new Atlantic trading system was important in world history.
Europeans conquered and colonized the Americas in the first phase of their expansion.
The ability of the Atlantic system to create a major new trading network was demonstrated.
The English, Dutch, and French created colonies in the Caribbean to compete with the earlier colonies created by the Spanish and Portuguese.
The colonies were fragile for a long time, but settlers found ways to make money.
Sugar was the first to replace tobacco.
Plantation societies were not just about replacing native vegetation with alien plants and native peoples with Europeans and Africans.
It made these islands part of a trading system that was controlled from Europe.
The West Indies was not the only place that was affected.
Brazil, large parts of Spanish Central and South America, and the southern region of British North America developed similar linkages, producing sugar, cacao, cotton, coffee, and indigo and using slave labor.
There were important differences among Europe's American tropical colonies despite their shared dependence on export markets and African slaves.
The English used indentured labor on a large scale.
Like the colonies of the Portuguese, Dutch, and French, they depended on African slave labor.
The English colonies depended on joint-stock companies and individual investors.
The French state and French monopoly companies quickly produced a massive flow of slaves while securing a profitable home market for the sugar of Saint Domingue and other colonies.
The Dutch became influential in the transfer of sugar technology and the expansion of the slave trade after they failed to hold Portugal's sugar-production colony of Brazil.
Cuba became the major destination for the slave trade and the major producer of sugar by 1820, after Spain introduced sugar to the Caribbean and imported African slaves.
The Atlantic system dominated Europe's American colonies more comprehensively than Africa did, as Africa imported trade goods and exported slaves to the Americas.
Africans interacted more with the Islamic world than with the Atlantic.
Slaves were sold in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Islamic world.
The spread of Islam to Africa was aided by these trade relationships.
The volume of the Atlantic trade was larger than the Islamic trade, but the Islamic trade continued after the Atlantic trade was ended.
Four slaves crossed the Atlantic to European colonies for every slave they carried across the Sahara.
While more males were carried across the Atlantic, the Islamic trade took more women and children, and few slaves in the Islamic region were subjected to the brutal labor conditions of the West Indian plantations.