44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
It can be suspended in water.
The water won't be as clear as it is near the source.
The water is warm.
There are worms and insects in the mud.
Waterfowl, frog, and fishes are included in the higher order predator vertebrates.
The trout in the waters at the source may not be able to use vision as their primary sense to find food because of the slow moving, sometimes murky waters.
They are more likely to use taste or chemical signals.
Wetlands are shallow and different from lakes.
There are several types of wetlands.
The three characteristics that make wetlands are their hydrology, hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils.
In southern Florida, there is a vast array of wetlands, including sawgrass marshes, cypress swamps, and estuarine mangrove forests.
There are depressions where water flow is low.
There are areas where there is a clay bottom.
Oxygen used during the decomposition of organic matter is not readily replaced, so the water in a bog is stagnant and oxygen deficient.
The oxygen in the water is low.
There is a build up of acids and a lower water pH.
Plants face challenges because of the lower pH.
Some plants capture insects in order to extract nitrogen from their bodies.
The water in the bogs has low levels of nitrogen and oxygen, which leads to low net primary productivity.
Climate is one of the many global conditions that affect each biome's environment.
Scientists who study climate have noticed a series of marked changes over the last sixty years.
A misconception about global climate change is that a specific weather event occurring in a particular region provides evidence of global climate change.
A cold week in June is a weather-related event.
There is confusion over the terms climate and weather.
The climate of a region is determined by its seasonal temperature and precipitation ranges.
Climate doesn't address the amount of rain that fell on a single day or the cold temperatures that occurred on a single day.
48-hour cycles are when weather forecasts are usually made.
Long-range weather forecasts can be unreliable.
Imagine that you are planning an outdoor event in northern Wisconsin.
You would think about the climate when you plan an event in the summer because you know that any given Saturday in the months of May to August would be a better choice for an outdoor event in Wisconsin.
It is difficult to accurately predict the weather on a specific day, so you can't determine the day that the event should be held on.
Climate can be described as "average" weather that takes place over a long period of time.
It is important to keep the different aspects of climate change separate from each other.
It is common for reports and discussions about global climate change to confuse the data showing that Earth's climate is changing with the factors that drive this climate change.
Scientists can't directly measure average temperature and precipitation since they can't go back in time.
Scientists use historical evidence of Earth's past climate to do this.
Evidence for climate change can be found in the ice cores of the Antarctic.
These ice cores are samples of polar ice obtained by means of drills that reach thousands of meters into ice sheets or high mountain glaciers.
The deeper the sample, the earlier the time period.
Air bubbles and other biological evidence can reveal temperature and carbon dioxide data.
The temperature of the Earth over the past 400,000 years has been estimated by collecting and analyzing ice cores.
The long-term average is referred to as the 0 degC on this graph.
Earth's long-term average temperature can be exceeded by temperatures greater than 0 degC.
Earth's average temperature is less than temperatures that are less than 0 degC.
There have been cycles of increasing and decreasing temperature.
Scientists drill for ice.
Air bubbles and biological substances are found in the ice.
The Earth has been cooler and warmer before the late 1800s.
The graph shows that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has risen and fallen over time.
There is a relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.
Scientists have determined the amount of CO2 trapped in the ice at the Russian Vostok station.
The temperature was determined from the amount of deuterium present.
Figure 44.27a does not show the last 2,000 years with enough detail to compare the changes of Earth's temperature during the last 400,000 years with the temperature change that has occurred in the more recent past.
There have been two significant temperature anomalies in the last 2,000 years.
The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age are related.
The Industrial Era coincides with the third temperature anomalies.
Between 900 and 1300 AD, the Medieval Climate Anomaly occurred.
Many climate scientists think that slightly warmer weather conditions prevailed in many parts of the world; the higher-than-average temperature changes varied between 0.10 and 0.20 degrees above the norm.
0.10 degC does not seem large enough to change anything, but it did free the seas of ice.
The Vikings were able to colonize the island because of the warming.
In North America, Europe, and possibly other areas of the Earth, a slight cooling of a little less than 1 degC was observed during this time.
During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a small deviation in temperature was observed, however, this 1 degC change in global temperature resulted in noticeable climatic changes.
Historical accounts show a time when winters were very cold and snowy.
The Industrial Revolution was characterized by changes in society.
The standard of living for people in Europe and the United States improved because of advances in agriculture.
Jobs and cheaper goods were provided by new technologies.
Fossil fuels were used to power these new technologies.
The Industrial Revolution began in the early 19th century.
Carbon dioxide is released when a fossil fuel is burned.
The beginning of the Industrial Era caused atmospheric carbon dioxide to rise.
Since the beginning of industrialization, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has risen steadily.
Scientists must use indirect evidence to determine the drivers of climate change because they can't directly observe and measure it.
The indirect evidence includes data collected using ice cores, boreholes, tree rings, glacier lengths, and pollen remains.
There is a correlation between the timing of temperature changes and the drivers of climate change.
There were three drivers of climate change before the Industrial Era.
The Milankovitch cycles are the first of these.
The Milankovitch cycles last between 19,000 and 100,000 years.
Predictable changes in the Earth's climate are associated with changes in the Earth's orbit at a minimum of every 19,000 years.
Climate change is caused by the variation in the sun's intensity.
There is a relationship between temperature and solar intensity.
The Earth's temperature increases as solar intensity increases.
One of the possible explanations for the Little Ice Age is changes in solar intensity.
Volcanic eruptions are a third natural driver of climate change.
While volcanic eruptions can last a few days, they can cause short-term climate changes by releasing gasses and particles into the air.
Carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide are some of the gasses released by volcanic eruptions.
Volcanic eruptions cool the climate.
The release of large volumes of sulfuric oxide occurred in 1783 when volcanos in Iceland erupted.
In Europe and North America, haze-effect cooling produced some of the lowest average winter temperatures on record.
The most significant drivers of the climate are greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and ozone are greenhouse gases.
Half of the sun's radiation goes through the atmosphere and strikes the Earth.
This radiation is converted into thermal radiation on the Earth's surface, and then some of it is reradiated back into the atmosphere.
Much of the thermal energy is reflected back to the Earth's surface by greenhouse gases.
The more greenhouse gases there are in the atmosphere, the more thermal energy is reflected back to the Earth's surface, heating it up and the atmosphere immediately above it.
The relationship between atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and temperature is supported by direct evidence.
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide has gone up since 1950.
The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was higher in 2011.
Scientists try to explain differences in data.
A historical pattern of carbon dioxide increasing and decreasing can be seen in the atmospheric carbon dioxide data.
It took 50,000 years for the atmospheric carbon dioxide level to increase from its low minimum concentration to its higher maximum concentration, according to scientists.
Since a few centuries ago, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have increased beyond the historical maximum.
In a matter of hundreds of years, the current increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide have happened.
The presence and industrial activities of modern human society is a key factor that must be considered when comparing historical data and current data; no other driver of climate change has yielded changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at this rate or to this magnitude.
Carbon dioxide and methane are two of the most important greenhouse gases.
The burning of fossil fuels, such as gasoline, coal, and natural gas, releases carbon dioxide.
Other human activities that release carbon dioxide are deforestation, cement manufacture, animal agriculture, and the clearing of land.
Methane is produced whenbacteria break down organic matter.
Anaerobic conditions can occur when organic matter is trapped underwater in rice paddies.
Methane can be released from natural gas fields and the decomposition of animal and plant material in landfills.
The melting of clathrates is a source of methane.
Methane is released when the water warms.
The rate at which clathrates melt is increasing as the ocean's water temperature increases.
The rate of global warming is further accelerated by increased levels of methane in the atmosphere.
The rapid rate of increase of global temperatures can be traced back to the positive feedback loop.
There is geological evidence of the consequences of climate change.
Warming glaciers and melting polar ice cause sea level to rise.
Changes in climate can affect organisms.
At least one planet-wide extinction event has been associated with global warming.
The geologic time period was one of the warmest on Earth.
Around 70 percent of the plant and animal species and 84 percent of the marine species are extinct, according to scientists.
Organisms that had adapted to wet and warm climates, such as the tropical wet forest, may not have been able to survive the change in climate.
The NASA video shows the effects of global warming on plant growth.
Warmer temperatures in the 1980s and 1990s caused an increase in plant productivity, but this advantage has been counteracted by more frequent droughts.
Climate change may be to blame for a number of global events.
Glacier National Park in Montana is experiencing a phenomenon known as glacier recession.
The area contained around 150 glaciers in 1850.
The park contained 24 glaciers greater than 25 acres.
The Grinnell Glacier is located at Mount Gould.
Between 2002 and 2006 the mass of the ice sheets in Greenland and theAntarctica decreased.
The thickness and size of the sea ice is decreasing.
Global warming can be seen in the retreat of the glacier.
Since 1900, the annual temperature in the park has increased.
The loss of a glacier results in the loss of summer meltwaters, which in turn results in the reduction of seasonal water supplies.
The global sea level is going to increase due to the loss of ice.
The sea is rising at an average rate.
Between 1993 and 2010 the rate of sea level increase ranged from 2.9 to 3.4mm per year.
A variety of factors affect the volume of water in the ocean, including the temperature of the water, as well as the amount of water found in rivers, lakes, glaciers, and the polar regions.
Liquid water used to be frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.
Many organisms are being affected by the changes in temperature, in addition to some abiotic conditions changing in response to climate change.
The geographic distribution and phenology of plants and animals are determined by temperature and precipitation.
More than 400 plant species in Great Britain are flowering 4.5 days sooner than in the past.
The insect-pollinated species were more likely to flower earlier than the wind-pollinated ones.
If the insect pollinators emerged earlier, the impact of changes in flowering date would be mitigated.
For continued survival of insect-pollinated plants, they must flower when their pollinators are present.
The study of the interactions of living things with community levels and how their environment is studied at the population and ecology.
Ecologists ask questions about how the population of organisms changes over time and how the population interacts with other species in the community.
The biotic components of the aquatic system can be different from those seen in the land system.
The structure of forests, as well as air, water, and soil, are important factors in the environment.
The geographic distribution of systems is studied in the structure of aquatic biogeography.
It is thought of as consisting of different living things as well as the abiotic factors that affect their zones based on water depth and distance from the shoreline distribution.
Endemic species are light penetrance.
Different kinds of organisms can only be found in a specific area.
The distribution is adapted to the conditions found in each zone.
Coral reefs are influenced by a number of environmental factors, including latitude and elevation, and are home to a wide variety of different species.
Estuaries are found where rivers meet the ocean.
Important processes regulating the young crustaceans, mollusks, fishes, and many other important species are found in the ocean upwellings, and spring and their shallow waters.
There are lakes, ponds, rivers and aquatic ecosystems.
Wetlands are limited by factors such as standing water, lower pH, and a distribution of living things.
The Earth has gone through periodic cycles of increases.
Both freshwater and marine environments have been included in the past 2,000 years.
The Medieval Climate Anomaly was warmer than the Little Ice Age.
Natural causes of changes in climate, forests, and tundra can be seen in the savannas and chaparral.
There are different geographic significant effects that can cause the same biome to occur.
Similar climates are natural drivers of climate change.
Changes in solar activity, temperature and Milankovitch cycles are key factors in eruptions.
There are no factors that lead to rapid changes in the composition of animal and plant communities.
Fossil fuels are an important source of fuel.
Net primary productivity is high in warm, moist environments, such as the tropical wet greenhouse gases, which play a major role in the greenhouse forest.
Two hundred and fifty million years ago, global temperatures, abundant water, and a year-round growing warming resulted in the Permian extinction: a large-scale season fuel plant growth and supply energy for high diversity extinction event that is documented in the fossil record.
The tundras have low primary productivity due to extreme increased melting of glaciers and polar ice sheets, resulting in temperatures and a shortage of available water.
Global warming causes both saltwater and freshwater to change.
Plants in a forest have adapted to capture limited resources.
The season lasts from June 1 to November 30.
During the last century, the amount of atmospheric CO b. has increased.
The following are characterized by little rain.
The subtropical desert and the other biological sciences are related.
There is an explanation for why the bodies are well-preserved.
The intertidal zone has many endemic species.
Compare and contrast the explanations of why this is so.
Predict possible consequences if carbon emissions continue to rise.