The Netherlands, a small maritime nation with great wealth, achieved considerable colonial success because of the pressures of European expansion.
The Netherlands won a reputation as the freest of the new European nations after breaking away from the Hapsburgs.
Dutch women were able to inherit full estates because of their separate legal identities.
The Dutch embraced greater religious tolerance and freedom of the press than other European nations.
The English Pilgrims fled first to the Netherlands before sailing to the New World.
Merchants and skilled sailors built the Dutch empire.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the East India Company were created by the Dutch, who were the most advanced capitalists in the modern world.
The power of democracy remained in the hands of a few, even though the Dutch offered liberties.
Dutch liberties had their limits.
African slaves were brought to the New World by the Dutch.
Slavery was an important part of Dutch capitalism.
Henry Hudson was commissioned by the Dutch to discover the fabled Northwest Passage in 1609.
He claimed modern-day New York for the Dutch despite failing.
New Netherland is an important part of the Dutch New World empire.
The Netherlands established colonies in Africa, the Caribbean, and North America after establishing the Dutch West India Company.
The Caribbean colonies were supported by the island of Manhattan.
The Dutch were determined not to repeat the atrocities of the Spanish.
The guidelines for New Netherland conformed to the ideas of Hugo Grotius, a legal philosopher who believed that Native peoples had the same natural rights as Europeans.
In 1626 Peter Minuit "bought" Manhattan from the Munsee Indians, despite the seemingly honorable intentions, it is likely the Dutch paid the wrong Indians for the land.
The Dutch attempt to find a more peaceful process of colonization and the inconsistency between European and Native American understandings of property were illustrated by these transactions.
Like the French, the Dutch wanted to make money.
New Netherland's central economic activity was trade with Native peoples.
Dutch traders carried wampum along Native trade routes.
The Wampum was a ceremonial and diplomatic commodity and was made by the Algonquian Indians on the southern New England coast.
The Dutch established farms, settlements, and lumber camps in order to develop their trading networks.
The patroon system was implemented by company directors.
The patroon system gave large estates to wealthy landlords, who paid tenants to work on their land.
Relations with local Indians deteriorated as Dutch settlements expanded.
The Dutch built permanent settlements in places where the ideals of peaceful colonization succumbed to the settlers' increasing demand.
Native villages and hunting lands were invaded by colonial settlements.
It seemed that peace and profit could not coexist.
Dutch colonization was crippled by labor shortages.
The colony could not attract enough indentured servants to satisfy its backers, and the pa troon system failed to bring enough tenants.
The same year that Minuit purchased Manhattan, the colony imported eleven company-owned slaves.
Slaves were tasked with building New Amsterdam, which included a defensive wall along the northern edge of the colony.
The port was maintained and the roads were created.
The formation of African Dutch families was enabled by the 2 women.
The first African marriage took place in 1641, and by 1650 there were at least five hundred African slaves in the colony.
Dutch slavery in New Amsterdam was less exploitative than later systems of American slavery, as was typical of the practice of African slavery in much of the early seventeenth century.
Some enslaved Africans successfully sued for back wages.
When several company-owned slaves fought for the colony against the Munsee Indians, they won a kind of "half freedom" that allowed them to work their own land in return for paying a large tax to their masters.
The children of these half-free laborers were held in bondage by the West India Company.
Some New Netherlanders protested the enslavement of Christianized Africans because of the reality of African slavery.
The economic goals of the colony slowly crowded out these cultural and religious objections, and the Dutch came to exist alongside increasingly brutal systems of slavery.
The rivalry between the two Iberian countries was spurred by the wealth flowing from New Spain.
The rivalry between Spain and Portugal created a crisis within the Catholic world.
The New World was divided by the pope in 1494.
The land west of the line was reserved for Spanish conquest, while the land east of it was given to Portugal.
Portugal and Spain were told to treat the natives with Christian compassion and to bring them under the protection of the Church in return for the license to conquer.
Portugal was preoccupied by colonies in Africa and India until 1530, when they turned their attention to Brazil, driving out French traders and establishing permanent settlements.
Sugar and the slave trade powered early colonial Brazil, despite the presence of gold and silver mines.
More Africans were enslaved in Brazil than in any other colony in the Atlantic World over the course of the slave trade.
The profitability of sugar or slave trading was more important than the number of gold mines.
Jesuit missionaries brought Christianity to Brazil, but strong elements of African and Native spirituality mixed with orthodox Catholicism created a unique religious culture.
The culture came from Brazilian slavery.
The cultural connection between Brazil and Africa was perpetuated by the high mortality rates on sugar plantations.
The profits of other European nations were overshadowed by the wealth flowing from the exploitation of the Aztec and Incan Empires.
The Spanish Armada would be destroyed by the English at the end of the 16th century.
Elizabeth I assumed the English crown after the Protestant Reformation.
The golden age of England included both the expansion of trade and exploration and the literary achievements of Shakespeare and Marlowe.
English mercantilism is a state-assisted manufacturing and trading system.
There was a steady supply of consumers and laborers in the markets.
The En glish population was affected by wrenching social and economic changes.
The island's population grew from less than three million in 1500 to over five million by the middle of the 17th century.
Rents and prices went up, but wages went down.
One quarter to one half of the population lived in extreme poverty.
New World colonization won support in England amid a time of rising English fortunes among the wealthy, a tense Spanish rivalry, and mounting internal social unrest.
Supporters of English colonization always talk about more than economic gains.