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22 -- Part 2: Revolutions in the Atlantic World
John Locke and the baron de Montesquieu used Enlightenment goals of personal freedom and legal equality to justify liberal self-government.
Locke said that England's political tradition was based on the rights of Englishmen and representative government through Parliament.
He said that if a government oversteps its function, it becomes tyranny.
Montesquieu believed that the judicial nobility of which he was a proud member offered the best defense against tyranny.
The bourgeoisie was attracted to the belief that representative institutions could defend their interests.
Montesquieu formulated liberal ideas about individual rights and po litical freedom that appealed to members of the nobility.
Representative government doesn't mean democracy.
There was no clear-cut opposition between nobles and non-nobles on political issues because of the blurring of practical distinctions.
There was a desire for equality and liberty among the social elite.
As some revolutionaries became frustrated with the limitations of classical liberal notions of equality and liberty, they clamored for a full realization of these concepts.
Polititi cal rights for women and free people of color, the emancipation of slaves, and government regulation to guarantee fair access to resources were some of the demands.
The age of revolution was characterized by conflicts over how far reform should go as the arguments for change that launched this age in the first place.
The roots of revolutionary ideology can be found in the writings of Locke or Montesquieu, but it was a series of events that created radical action.
The Seven Years' War was one of the most important conflicts.
The war's battlefields spanned from central Europe to India to North America, pitting England and Prussia against the French and Austrians.
At the end of the War of the Austrian Succession, there were unresolved conflicts.
In central Europe, Austria's Maria Theresa vowed to win back Silesia, which Prussia took in the war of succession, and to crush Prussia, thereby reestablishing Habsburg leadership in German affairs.
Prussia survived the Seven Years' War despite Maria Theresa almost succeeding.
There were unresolved tensions between the French and British colonies in North America.
The French claim to the Ohio Val ey resulted in skirmishes between English settlers and the French.
The French won major victories until 1758.
The British used superior sea power to destroy the French fleet and choke off French commerce around the world.
The fate of France in North America was sealed in 1759 when the British took Quebec.
Canada and treaty that ended the Seven Years' al French territory east of the Mississippi River passed to Britain, and France ceded Loui War to Spain.
Britain and Louisiana were given up by France.
Britain realized its goal of monopolizing a lot of trading by 1763, but at a huge cost in war debt.
France emerged from the conflict and broke, but its profitable Caribbean colonies remained intact.
The British and French governments had to raise taxes to repay loans after the war.
France lost its vast territories in North America and India as a result of the war.
In order to avoid costly conflicts with Native Americans living in the newly conquered territory, the British government prohibited settlers from west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Saint-Domingue was the most profitable plantation in the New World.
The era of liberal political revolution began in the New World because of how American colonists forged increased taxes.
The thirteen mainland colonies of British North America succeeded in establishing a new unified government after revolting against their home country.
The Americans set an example that would have a big impact on France and its colonies.
The British national debt was doubled because of the high cost of the Seven Years' War.
The British government decided to maintain a large army in North America and tax the colonies directly because of the fur ther expenses to defend newly conquered territories.
The Stamp Act levied taxes on a long list of documents, including diplomas, newspapers, and play cards.
The British thought the measures were reasonable for a stamp tax that already existed in Britain.
The colonists boycotted British goods in protest of the Stamp Act.
Parliament repealed it reluctantly.
Political questions were raised by this dispute.
The British government said that Parliament ruled throughout the empire and that Americans were represented in it.
Many Americans believed that only colonial political institutions had the right to make laws.
British colonial admin istration and parliamentary supremacy were seen as grave threats to existing Ameri can liberties.
Americans had long enjoyed their independence and were fed their resistance to these threats.
Religious freedom was not taken for granted in British North America.
The British government rarely overturned the laws made by the colonial assembly.
The right to vote was more widespread in England.
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