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ChAPTER 3 -- Part 1: Asia's First Civilizations: India
Men's control over women was emphasized in Mesopotamia.
By the third millennium b.c.e., Mesopotamian husbands hid their wives from the world.
The detail from Egyptian tomb art shows a husband and wife.
In Egypt, unlike Mesopotamia, men and women were depicted working together.
The family honor depended on strict control of women's sexual behavior, whereas the men's honor depended on their work and public duties.
Women were only allowed to control property if they were widowed.
In Egypt women were seen as inferior, and many writers urged men to maintain control of the women in their households, but Egyptian women had a much wider range of permissible activity.
queens had considerable power.
Queen Nefertiti was known for her beauty but also for her role in promoting major religious reforms which included the promotion of one of Egypt's many dieties.
According to Egyptian belief, both men and women could become stars in the heavens and have equal access to the afterlife.
The daughters were responsible for carrying on family religious practices.
The subject of this chapter is the introduction of many important changes in human life.
Theyhrined men's superiority in laws and art as well as government structures, making patriarchal systems more formal.
Each major society gained distinctive characteristics, as each early civilization put its particular stamp on basic aspects of life.
The gender systems depend on cultural values and political arrangements.
Each civilization's identities were created by differences in the way patriarchy was practiced.
Travelers would note that women in Egypt were treated differently than in Mesopotamia.
Specific gender practices can last well beyond the early civilization.
Middle Eastern con texts for women have traces of approaches first introduced in Mesopotamia.
The wave of technological changes around 4,000 economy to writing, followed by the cumulative effects of agriculture.
Civilization was created as a new organizational form because of frequent b.c.e.
The invasions contributed to elements of civilization as a form of human organization.
Some agricultural economies have distinctive religious belief and political systems.
The kind of written records useful for trade were promoted by writing.
Bronze was useful for conquest.
Support was required for new types of manufacturing.
Bronze required longer-distance trade in order to find copper and tin.
Middle Eastern people traveled as far as Britain and Afghanistan to get resources.
Irrigation along great river valleys, vital for greater agricultural productivity, promoted new kinds of organizational structures to coordinate the process and new laws to demarcate property.
Major floods occurred.
A layer of mud swept over in a flood separated the sites where one city was built on top of the other.
The story of how the gods decided to wipe out mankind is told in mud tablets.
There was only one man who was saved.
His name was Utnapishtim.
The first civilization arose in the northeastern part of the Middle East, which is now known as the Middle East.
Between the northern hills and the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula lies a large swath of arable land called the Fertile Crescent.
fertile soil is deposited when the rivers overflow in the spring.
Farming communities began to find ways to use the rivers through irrigation ditches as population pressure increased due to early agriculture.
Improvements in the region were swift with the improved tools of the Bronze Age.
The fertile Tigris-Euphrates region generated large food surpluses, promoting population growth and village expansion as well as increased trade and job specialization.
The region was so flat that it was vulnerable to invasion.
The centers of religion, pilgrimage, and Euphrates rivers were developed by the civilization.
The Sumerians introduced into Mesopotamia.
About 2000 b.c.e., the Sumerian culture was completely destroyed.
The agricultural hinterland was ruled by a form of political an urban king.
In some cases, the king was advised by a local organization.
One of the functions of Sumerian city-states was to define the boundaries of Mesopotamian civilization.
The agricultural hinterlands religion helped regulate each city-state.
It gave a system of courts for justice.
The warriors were ruled by an urban king.
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