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AP Biology courses give students hands-on experience with some of the biology topics covered in class.
You can learn the scientific method, lab techniques, and problem-solving skills through these laboratory exercises.
AP teachers can choose the labs they want to use in their classroom, because there is not an official set of labs that must be completed.
You won't be tested on data from the labs.
All labs teach the same basic skills of critical thinking, such as developing hypotheses, judging results, making conclusions, adapting experiments, and understanding variables.
You are expected to fully understand those skills.
You will need to answer questions about the experiments you are presented with on the exam.
There are 13 labs that are very popular to do in AP Biology classes, and these are the same labs that often come up on the AP test.
Short summaries of the 13 labs have been given to you.
If you encounter a question about one of these labs, you will be one step ahead of students that have never heard of it before.
Artificial selection is the process by which humans decide to enhance or diminish in other species by crossing individuals with the desired phenotype.
Variation can be found in any population.
Natural selection and differential reproduction are major mechanisms in evolution.
The genetic makeup of the population will change over time because some organisms have more favorable characteristics to the environment and will reproduce more than other individuals.
The lab deals with Wisconsin Fast Plants.
Plants with the desired traits can be crossed to change the genetic makeup of the population.
If you wanted to select for height, you could only cross the tallest plants with one another.
The new population will have taller people.
To understand everything you need for the AP Biology Exam, you need to be able to use the Hardy-Weinberg principles and equations.
Know how to use the two equations to calculate the frequencies.
The frequencies remain constant if the population obeys the rules.
The discussion of the principle is in this book.
There are five conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Natural selection can lead to changes in the genetics of a population.
The laboratory uses a database called BLAST to look for similar or identical genes in other species.
A phylogenic tree is a way to show evolutionary relatedness.
Each junction on the tree is a descendant of a specific species.
There are more closely related species that are closer to a phylogenic tree.
The more similar the two species are, the more closely related they are.
BLAST can tell you how similar a sequence is to another by analyzing it.
The effects of solute concentration and water potential on the process of Diffusion and Osmosis are investigated by this lab.
This lab covers the same concepts that are discussed in the book.
Osmosis is the movement of water from a region of high water concentration to one of low water concentration, or from a hypotonic region to a hypertonic region.
Water potential is the free energy of water.
It's a measure of the tendency of water to diffuse.
Water moves from a higher water potential to a lower water potential.
Understand the effects of water gain on animal and plant cells.
Concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell is what determines the direction of osmosis in animals.
Turgor pressure is the pressure that develops as water presses against a cell wall.
The cell will shrink away from the wall if it loses water.
The importance of surface area and volume in cells is an important concept to understand.
The necessary formulas are listed on the AP Biology Equations and Formulas sheet.
Cells regulate the movement of solutes in the cell.
Small cells have a large surface area-to-volume ratio; however, as cells become larger, this ratio becomes smaller, giving the cell less surface area to exchange solutes.
The surface area-to-volume ratio determines the size of a cell.
Many organisms have evolved strategies for increasing surface area, like root hairs on plants and villi in the small intestines of animals.
Measuring the oxygen produced by a plant can tell us about the net photosynthesis that is taking place.
In this laboratory, you can see that photosynthesis is happening by using leaf discs that begin to float.
As light intensity increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, so be able to theorize about the effects of these variables.
The rate of germinating and nongerminating small insects is studied in this lab.
Oxygen needs to be consumed in order for seeds to grow.
Non-germinating seeds don't respire.
The amount of oxygen consumed by these types of seeds is measured in this lab.
The experiment is conducted at 25 and 10 degrees, because seeds consume more oxygen at higher temperatures.
Oxygen is consumed in the body.
Germinating seeds have a higher respiratory rate than nongerminating seeds.
You can design a study to determine the effect of temperature on cell respiration.
Use glass beads to understand the significance of a control.
A control is an experiment condition.
Glass beads are used as a control because they won't consume oxygen.
There are differences between meiosis and meosis.
There are slides of onion root tips in this lab.
Two genetically identical cells are produced by meiosis.
Cell division is highly regulated by a series of checkpoints that depend on the cyclins with other cyclin- dependent kinases.
One example of this is the MPF, which is thought to cause a cell to die.
Incorrect number of chromosomes in daughter cells can be caused by nondisjunction or the failure of chromosomes to separate correctly.
Under a microscope, each phase of the cell cycle looks different.
The sexual life cycle of the fungus Sordaria fimicola is examined in one section of the lab.
Sexual reproduction in this fungus involves the fusion of two nuclei--a (+) strain and a (-) strain--to form a diploid zygote.
The asci contained in this zygote are eight haploid.
Increasing genetic variation can occur during meiosis.
When compared with the parent strain, different genetic combinations will be observed in the offspring.
The offspring of new genetic combinations are called recombinants.
An estimate of the linkage map distance between two genes can be calculated using the following equation.
The map distance is x 100.
The principles of genetic engineering are studied in this lab.
It is possible to insert genes into a corn genome in order to ward off pests.
In higher plants and animals, the process is very complex, but simple inbacteria.
plasmids are small, circular DNA fragments that can be used to incorporate genes into the host's chromosomes.
Genetic engineering uses plamids as a key element.
One way to incorporate specific genes into a plasmid is to use restriction enzymes, which cut foreign DNA at specific sites.
A specific fragment can be mixed with a plasmid and taken up by E. coli.
Cells can be transformed with plismids.
If a plasmid has genes that confer resistance to an antibiotic, it can transfer these genes to the bacteria.
Thebacteria are said to be changed.
Only transformed cells will grow if ampicillin is in the culture.
Scientists can find out whichbacteria took up a plasmid by using this method.
In order to make a cell take up a plasmid, you need to add CaCl2, heat shock the cells, and incubate them.
You will be introduced to the technique of gel electrophoresis.
This technique is used in genetic engineering.
Various restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA.
The wells have agarose gel on them.
The fragments move according to their weights as electricity runs through them.
The negatively charged molecule will migrate toward the positive electrode.
The longer the fragment is in the gel, the slower it moves.
Each fragment's distance is recorded.
Scientists can distinguish between the genes of different people.
Each individual will have a unique set of fragments called restriction fragment length polymorphisms, or RFLPs, since a restriction enzyme will only cut a specific DNA sequence.
This technology is used at crime scenes.
The lab looks at energy storage and transfer.
The sun's energy can be used by organisms to make their own food.
They convert this into chemical energy that is stored in high-energy molecule.
Heterotrophs must get their energy from their environment.
They can use this energy to make organic molecules.
The mass of living matter in an environment is called biomass.
It is possible to estimate the energy present in an environment.
transpiration is the movement of water from a plant to the atmosphere.
The special properties of water allow it to move through a plant from the roots to the leaves.
Know the tissues involved in transporting plants.
Water and phloem sugars are transported from the roots to the leaves.
The leaves of a plant have small pores that allow CO2 to enter and also allow water to exit during transpiration.
Fruit flies are given the choice between two environments by using a choice chamber, which allows them to move freely between the two environments.
Fruit flies prefer environments that give them food or a place to reproduce.
Taxis is the movement of an organisms.
Positive taxis are those that move away from aStimulus and negative taxis are those that move away from aStimulus.
Fruit flies exhibited a negative gravitaxis and positive phototaxis in this lab.
The lab shows how an enzyme can change the rate of catalysis.
The peroxidase is used in this lab to convert hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
The rate of biological reactions are increased by the increase in the number of genes.
The activation energy of the reaction is lowered.
The active sites are pockets that the reactants can enter that are specific to one set of substrates.
The temperature and pH ranges of the Enzymes are optimal.
The rates of reaction can be influenced by the concentration of the two substances.
If you're asked to design an experiment to measure the effect of these four variables, keep the conditions constant except for the variable of interest.
If you want to measure the effects of pH in an experiment, keep the temperature constant, the concentration constant, and the substrate constant.
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