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16 -- Part 7: The Acceleration of Global Contact
The Spanish were invited to meet the envoys in the pro vincial town of Cajamarca.
His plan was to lure the Spaniards into a trap, seize their horses and ablest men, and execute the rest.
Instead, the Spaniards attacked and captured him, and then executed him in 1533.
Spanish people had huge amounts of gold and silver.
The Spanish conquest opened a new chapter in European relations with the New World.
The New World was transformed by the European presence.
New political, social, and economic organizations imposed by Europeans caused devastating losses.
The exchange of goods and people between Europe and the New World brought diseases to the Americas, but it also gave both the New and Old World new crops.
For the first time, a truly global economy emerged in the 16th and 17th century.
The ancient civilizations of Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Asia confronted each other in new ways.
The confrontations often lead to conquest, forced migration, and brutal exploitation, but they also contributed to cultural exchange and renewal.
The lands they discovered for the Spanish crown were claimed by Columbus, Cortes, and Pizarro.
The House of Trade was established by the Spanish in 1503 after they granted the port of Sevil a monopoly over traffic to the New World.
The viceroy, or imperial governor, is within each territory and was created in 1717 with the capital of New Granada.
The system of intendants was introduced by King Charles III.
In the Americas, these royal officials had a broad military, administrative, and financial authority.
The colony of Brazil was governed by the Portuguese.
Spanish administrative forms were introduced after the union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain.
Brazil's industries were placed under severe restrictions because they might compete with Portugal and Spain.
Thousands of groups of indigous peoples with different languages and cultures lived in the Americas before Columbus arrived.
These groups ranged from hunter gatherer tribes organized into tribal confederations to large-scale agriculture-based empires connecting bustling cities and towns.
The lives of the indigenous peoples were changed by the arrival of Euro peans.
Two hundred thousand Spaniards migrated to the New World in the 16th century.
The indigenous peoples were first used to work the cattle ranches, sugar plantations, and silver mines established by the settlers.
The encomiendas hid form of slavery.
The new conditions resulted in huge population losses.
Disease was the cause of death.
The inhabitants of the New World have little or no resistance to diseases from the Old World.
Overwork was a factor in the decline in population.
The native workers died in large numbers.
Forced labor diverted local people from tending to their own crops, leading to malnutrition, reduced fertility rates, and starvation.
The African slave trade was intensified because of the rich silver mines at Potosi.
In New Spain, there were brutal conditions and death in the silver mines.
The mixing of peoples in the Spanish New World colonies inspired a lot of interest.
This painting is part of a genre that depicts couples composed of individuals of different ethnic origin and children produced of their unions.
The Franciscan Bartolome de Las Casas claimed that the Spanish had killed three million indigenous people.
Charles V abolished the worst abuses of the encomienda system in 1531 after 3 Las Casas and other missionaries asserted that the Indians had human rights.
In the Spanish colonies there was a pattern of devastating disease and population loss.
The native population fell from 50 mil ion in 1492 to 9 mil ion by 1700.
It is important to note that native populations and cultures did survive the conquest period, sometimes byblending with Euro pean incomers and sometimes by maintaining cultural autonomy.
The loss of a subjugated labor force to work in the mines and sugar plantations was the main problem for colonial administrators.
The tragedy of the Atlantic slave trade was caused by the search for fresh sources of labor.
The introduction of new diseases to the Americas had devastating consequences.
The Spanish and Portuguese raised wheat with the help of the encomienda system.
There were grapes and olives brought over from Spain.
The meat and milk that the early conquistadors brought with them, including cattle, sheep, and goats, was the most significant introduction to the diet of Na tive Americans.
The horse made it possible for the conquerors and natives to travel faster and farther.
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