Only Siam was able to preserve its independence in Southeast Asia.
The British and the French were sandwiched between Siam.
The King of Siam played the two competitors off each other.
A Chinese man who was tried for sedition by the military was found merchant and married a woman who was guilty.
He was half Chinese and half Philippine when he died.
He was a martyr of the born into a well-to-do family that leased a plantation from the Dominican nationalist cause after he was publicly executed by a firing squad.
He was a student himself, and both of his parents were educated.
He earned a medical degree in Spain and a PhD in 1 during his ten years in Europe.
After Rizal's death, his portrait was used to inspire replacing Spanish friars with Filipino priests, and to make Filipinos patriotic.
The British Museum was where he spent a year researching the early phase of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines.
Two novels were written by him.
The first novel was written in Spanish.
In satirical fashion, it depicts a young Filipino of mixed blood who studies for several years in Europe before returning to the Philippines to start a secular school and marry his childhood sweetheart.
The church is in the way of his efforts.
The hero is killed after the friars implicate him in a revolutionary conspiracy.
Rizal's life ended up following this narrative very closely.
After leaving Europe, he stopped in Hong Kong and Manila to help his family with a lawsuit.
He ran into trouble after securing his relatives' release from jail.
He made many enemies because his writings were critical of the power of the church.
He was exiled to a Jesuit mission town on the island.
The Jesuits tried to win him back to the church after he founded a school and hospital there.
During his four years in exile, he taught English, science, and self-defense, as well as maintaining his correspondence with scientists in Europe.
When a nationalist secret society rose in revolt in 1896, Rizal volunteered to go to Cuba to help in the fight against yellow fever.
Although he had no connections with the secret society, he was arrested and sent back to Manila.
A modern centralizing state was developed by Independent Siam.
The Philippines was taken from Spain by the United States in 1898.
Spanish priests who could speak the local languages became the most common way for local populations to communicate with the new rulers.
The Spanish introduction of private ownership of land aided in the development of a local Filipino elite.
A large Chinese community, which handled much of the trade within the Philippines, was attracted to Manila because of the trade between Mexico and China.
Spain didn't do much to promote education in the Philippines.
Wealthy Filipinos began to send their sons to study abroad in the late 19th century in order to press Spain for reforms.
There was a rebellion in 1896 when the Spanish cracked down on critics.
The Spanish promised to reform in 1897.
In 1898 war broke out between Spain and the United States in Cuba, and in May the American naval officer Commodore George Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
When the Philippine rebels declared independence, the U.S. government refused to recognize them.
The Dutch, French, and Americans lost thousands of lives in the war in the Philippines.
China was the most populous country in the world, its products were in great demand in foreign countries, and its borders had recently been expanded.
China's world standing had plummeted in a century.
In 1900 foreign troops marched into China's capital to protect foreign nationals, as more and more Chinese thought that their government, society, and cultural values needed to be changed.
Europeans were only allowed to trade through Chinese merchants at the port of Guangzhou, which was ruled by the Manchu emperors.
The balance of trade was in China's favor.
The use and sale of imported goods were illegal in China.
After the war of 21 million ounces of silver imposed on China profits, Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in sales from 4,500 chests a year in 1810 to 10,000 in 1830 and 40,000 in 1838.
Privileges granted by China to other nations made China suffer a drain of silver.
He dealt harshly with Chinese who purchased opium, seized opium stores of British merchants, and sent formal complaints to the British government.
The British settled on the barren island of Hong Kong after Lin pressured the Portuguese to expel them from their trading post at Macao.
The British responded to the Chinese policies by flexing their military muscles.
The British sent an expeditionary force from India with forty-two warships, many of them leased from the major opium trader.
The British were able to shut down key Chinese ports and force the Chinese to negotiate.
The British disagreed with the result and sent a bigger force, which took even more coastal cities.