The massacres were caused by Andrew John son's policy towards white supremacists, argued Radical Republicans.
The Fourteenth Amendment extended federal civil rights protections to African Americans after the race riots.
Black protests over restrictive laws passed by the new all- white south ern state legislatures triggered the violence against southern blacks.
State to state, black codes varied.
Mississippi made black people dependent on their white employers because they couldn't hunt or fish.
Black marriages were recognized, but not interracial marriages.
Life imprisonment was the punishment faced by violators.
African Americans were not allowed to vote, serve on juries, or testify against whites.
They couldn't own farmland in Mississippi or city property in South Carolina.
Every black male over the age of eighteen in Mississippi had to be trained by a white.
The "convict lease" system was used by states to cut the costs of housing prisoners.
Coal mines, lumber camps, and brickyards were some of the most exploitive labor systems in history, as people convicted of crimes, mostly African Americans, were hired out by county and state governments to work for them.
In other words, convict leasing was a form of neo- slavery.
Andrew Johnson was challenged over Reconstruction pol icies by the Radi cal Republicans.
The Freedmen's Bureau received funding when Johnson vetoed the bill.
The Republicans couldn't overturn the veto.
Johnson criticized the Radical Republicans for their promotion of black civil rights.
Moderate Republicans supported the Radicals after they deserted the president.
"Johnson has become an alien enemy of a foreign state," said Stevens.
The legislation upset Johnson.
He was angry that Congress could not grant citizenship to blacks.
Republicans overrode Johnson's veto of the Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877 Rights Act, which discriminated against the white race.
It was the first time in history that Congress had overturned a presidential veto.
President Johnson lost both public and political support after that point.
It guaranteed citizenship to immigrant children who were born in the United States.
Taking aim at the black codes, it also prohibited any efforts to violate the civil rights of "citizens," black or white; to deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop erty, without due process of law; or to "deny any person".
Congress gave the federal government responsibility for protecting civil rights.
The amendment was approved by three quarters of the states in 1868.
The states of the former Confederacy had to approve the amendment before they could be readmitted to the Union.
The south ern states were urged by President Johnson to refuse to approve the amend ment.
Johnson was the 14th amendment.
The detail is losing support in the North.
The case of a black man who was whipped for a cal ed Johnson, despite federal orders prohibiting such forms of punishment, illustrates a case in Raleigh, North York newspaper editor.
Johnson went on a speaking tour of the Midwest in order to win votes for the Democrats in the congressional elections.
His speeches backfired.
The Radical Republicans were described by Johnson as "fac tious, domineering, tyrannical" men.
While the president was speaking from the back of a railway car, the engineer pulled the train out of the tracks, making him look like a fool.
In the congressional elections of 1866, the Radical Republican can didates won more than a two- thirds majority in each house, meaning they were able to override presidential vetoes.
The process of reconstructing the former Confederacy would be taken over by Congressional Republicans.
The Military Reconstruction Act was part of the Congressional Reconstruction plan.
The new governments were abolished under Johnson's Reconstruction policies.
Military control over ten of the former Con federate states was established by Congress.
The other ten states were divided into five military districts, each commanded by an army general.
There wasn't enough soldiers to enforce Congressional Reconstruction.
The entire state of Mississippi had less than 400 soldiers.
Black or white, rich or poor, landless or property owners were guaranteed the right to vote by the Military Reconstruction Act.
Black or white women were not allowed to vote.
Once a majority of voters approved the new constitutions, the state legislatures had to approve the Fourteenth Amendment, which would give the former Confederate states representation in Congress.
Several hundred African American dele gates participated in the convention.
The president is required to issue army orders through the general.
The Tenure of Office Act stipulated that the Senate must approve any effort to remove federal officials who were confirmed by the Senate.
The act was intended to prevent Johnson from firing Secretary of War, who was the most outspoken critic in the cabinet.
The most sweeping peacetime legislation in American history was embodied by Congressional Reconstruction.
It wanted freed slaves to be involved in the creation of new state governments in the former Confederacy.
"This is the promise of America," he said.
The first two years of Reconstruction produced dramatic changes in the South, as new state legislature rewrote their constitutions.
Andrew Johnson stood in the way of the Radical Republicans in Reconstruction.
More and more Radicals decided that the president should be removed from office.
The Ten ure of Office Act was considered an illegal restriction of presidential power by Johnson and he replaced him with Grant.
The Radicals had a chance.
Johnson had violated the Tenure of Office Act by removing Stanton.
The Senate galleries are filled with people watching the trial.
He had opposed the policies of the Radical Republicans.
On March 5, 1868, the first Senate trial of a sitting president began.
There was a packed gallery of journalists, foreign dignitar ies, and political officials.
Edmund G. Ross, a young Radical from Kansas, cast the deciding vote in favor of acquittal, knowing that his vote would ruin his political career.
The evidence against Johnson was insufficient for conviction.
Ross looked into his open grave.
Everything that makes life desirable.
Ross was ostracized by the Angry Radicals of the Era of Reconstruction.
He died of poverty after losing his reelection campaign.
The effort to remove Johnson was a mistake because it weakened public support for Congressional Reconstruction.
Johnson's private agreement to stop obstructing Congressional Reconstruction was gained by the Radical cause.
Johnson was urged by General Grant to exert more federal force in the South.
Johnson said it was a local issue.
Federal troops should not be in it.
Grant wouldn't take no for an answer.
He continued to point out that white people were trying to intimidate freed people.
In June 1868, congressional Republicans announced that eight southern states could send delegates to Congress.
The leaders of the movement to secure voting rights for women insisted that the amendment should have included women.
Black and white women would have to wait another fifty years for the right to vote.
The backlash in the South was caused by the Fifteenth Amendment.
The resentment of Reconstruction was deepened by the idea of the federal government guaranteeing the right of freedmen to vote.
Other states followed suit.
The Naturalization Act of 1870 was passed four months after the Fifteenth Amendment became law.
Asians and Native Americans were not included in the new law.
Many former slaves created their own social institutions in order to forge new lives.
The course of Reconstruction was affected by African Americans.
It was not easy because whites still practiced racism.
Most southern blacks thought that their best chance to make a living was by working for their former owners.
The Freedmen's Bureau and federal soldiers ordered them to sign labor con tracts with local whites.
A black soldier tried to control the Union with an amputation leg amount of wages paid to freedmen.
It clasps hands with a white amputee in a cartoon.
The Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877 White Southerners used terror, intimidation, and violence to suppress black efforts to gain social and economic equality.
The war was still going on as armed men tried to stop federal efforts to recon struct the South.
A black woman in Georgia was given sixty-five lashes for using abusive language during an encounter with a white woman.
The Civil War gave freedom to enslaved African Americans, but they did not have protection against exploitation or abuse.
Union soldiers and northern observers were surprised that freed slaves did not leave the South.
The Union officer said that southern blacks were more attached to familiar places than any other group.
Many freedmen were trained in leadership by being in the Union army or navy.
The first generation of African American political leaders in the postwar South were formed by black military veterans.
Military service gave many former slaves the chance to learn to read and write, which gave them new possibilities for economic advancement, social respectability, and civic leadership.
A fervent sense of nationalism was instilled by fighting for the Union cause.
During and after the war, African American religious life in the South changed.
Slaves who attended white churches were forced to sit in the back.
Both black and white ex- slaves established their own churches after the war, which became the crossroads for black community life.
Ministers became social and political leaders.
Baptists and Methodists reached out to the working poor in part because they were already the largest denominations in the South.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church gained 50,000 members in the year 1866.
More than one million African Americans in the South became Baptists by 1890.
African American communities created schools.
A former slave said that starting schools was the first proof of freedom.
Before the Civil War, most plantation owners denied an education to their slaves to keep them from organizing uprisings.
After the war, the white elite worried that education would distract poor whites and blacks from their work in the fields or encourage them to leave the South in search of better social and economic opportunities.
The opposition of southern whites to education for blacks made public schools more important to African Americans.
She walked five miles to school as a child, earned a scholarship to college, and went on to become the first black woman to attend a four-year college in Florida.
600 blacks, most of them former slaves, were elected as state legislators under Congressional Reconstruction because of the denial of voting rights to ex-Confederates.
A former Union soldier was elected lieutenant governor in the Era of Reconstruction.
Americans were elected to high state offices.
Fourteen black congressmen served in the U.S. House of Representatives, two of which were natives of Mississippi.
The election of black politicians disgusted whites.
The freed slaves were uneducated and had no civic experience.
Blacks were no different than millions of poor or immigrant white males who had been voting and serving in office for years.
Some freedmen confessed their disadvantages.
Beverly Nash, an African American delegate, told his colleagues that they were not prepared for the vote.
In time, a man will learn a trade if he is given tools and allowed to use them.
Two people served in the U.S. Senate.
The major figure in the abolitionist movement was Frederick Douglass.
Many ex- slaves said that land was what they needed the most.
After taking control of Confederate areas during the war, the Union armies gave former slaves land in several southern states.
Andrew Johnson reversed the transfers of white- owned property to former slaves.
They knew that their freedom came from their ownership of land.
"Our wives, our children, our husbands, has been sold over and over again to purchase the lands we now locates on," a Virginia freed man said.
Thousands of former slaves were forced to return their farms to white people.
It was difficult for former slaves to get loans to buy farmland because few banks were willing to lend to blacks.
Their sense of betrayal was profound.
They would give up their portion of the crop if they left.
One of the earliest American homeless took a picture of a family being evicted from their Virginia home in 1899 and left them unemployed and subject to arrest.
Most white plantation owners and small farmers were determined to control African Americans as if they were still slaves.
It pushed the sharecrop deeper in debt if bad weather or insects disrupted the harvest.
Many freed blacks preferred sharecropping because it freed them from day to day supervision by whites.
Most sharecroppers, black and white, were trapped in debt to the land owner with little choice but to remain tied to the system of dependence that felt like slavery.
African Americans in the postwar South were not a single community.
There were differences between the few who owned property and the many who did not.
Less than 7 percent of black people owned land in North Carolina by 1870.
Most of the northern blacks and the southern free blacks were city dwellers and mulattos, so they opposed efforts to redistribute land to the freedmen.
African Americans focused on common concerns and unity prevailed.
Many African Americans served in state government.
The label "black Recon struction" distorts African American political influence.
The large number of white Republicans in the mountain areas of the Upper South favored the Radical plan for Reconstruction, which was criticized.
The Republican state convention in South Carolina had a black majority.
Florida and Virginia were the only two states where more than 20% of the members were black.
The Texas convention was only 10 percent black, and North Carolina's was 11 percent, which did not stop a white newspaper from calling it a group of "baboons, monkeys, mules."
In some state elections since 1867, former slaves have been voting in large numbers.
Critics argued that the 30,000 scheming Northerners, mostly young men, who rushed South with their belongings in cheap suitcases made of carpeting to grab political power or buy plantations, were the carpetbaggers.
Some of the Northerners were corrupt opportunists.
Union military veterans were drawn to the South to rebuild the devastated economy.
Many other people, such as teachers, social workers, attorneys, physicians, editors, and ministers, were called carpetbaggers because they wanted to help free blacks and poor whites.
After the war, the Union general who won the Medal of Honor stayed in the South to help former slaves.
He was elected a Republican in 1870 and served as the military governor of Mississippi.
The scalawags, or southern white Republicans, were hated by the Southern Democrats.
The majority of scalawags had been Union ists.
In the mountain counties of Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama, they were prominent.
James Longstreet, the former Confederate general who decided that the Old South must change its ways, was one of the scalawags.
He became a cotton broker in New Orleans and joined the Republican party.
The bag in front of Joseph E. Brown was filled with an ernor of Georgia who urged Southerners' faults.
The scalawags were willing to work with Republicans to rebuild the southern economy.
They used legal and illegal means to redeem their beloved South from northern control, Republican rule and black equality.
White southern ministers said that God supported white supremacy.
Many northern religionists became "apostles of forgiveness" for their southern white brethren in an attempt to reconcile the Protestant denominations of the North and South.
During Reconstruction, exploitation and abuse increased among African Americans.
The first attempts to deny equal ity were created by the white state governments.
Hundreds were killed across the South and many more were injured in a systematic effort to keep blacks out.
D. B. Whitesides, a white farmer in Texas, told Charles Brown, a former slave, that his freedom would do him little good.
"Yes," a bleeding Brown said.
The death of slavery did not mean the birth of true freedom for African Americans.
Resistance to Radical Reconstruction became more violent for a growing number of southern whites.
The Ku Klux Klan, the White Line, and the White League were some of the terrorist groups.
The Klan and other groups started as a social club with spooky costumes and secret rituals.
Most of the members of the group were former Confederate soldiers.
The district that included Louisiana and Texas was supervised by General Philip Sheridan.
Anger over the Confederate defeat, resentment against federal soldiers occupying the South, and fear that former slaves might seek revenge against whites were some of the motives of these groups.
The Klansmen spread rumors, issued threats, and burned schools and churches.
During one massacre, a white supremacist said they were going to kill all the Negroes.
The Republican state governments were overturned.
The new constitutions they created remained in effect for years, and later constitutions incorporated many of their most progressive features.
The Republican state governments brought about changes to reflect changing populations and protected black voting rights.
The "good old boy" tradition of rewarding political supporters with state government jobs was weakened by the change of more state offices from appointed to elected positions.
Poor whites were gaining political clout for the first time in South Carolina, threatening the dominance of wealthy white plantation owners and merchants, which was why the former Confederate leaders opposed the Republican state legislature.
The achievements of the Republican state in the South were remarkable.
They rebuilt an extensive railroad network and established public school systems that were open to all children.
600,000 black children were in southern schools by the year 1877.