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1.2 Physical Quantities and Units -- Part 3

- A store sells apples.
- You purchase four bags of apples and weigh them each time.

- The bag's expected value is 5 lbs.
- The uncertainty is about 0.4 lbs.

- The weight of the apple bag can be concluded.
- The uncertainty in the weight remained the same if the bag of apples were half as heavy.
- When calculating percent uncertainty, always remember to add the fraction by 100%.
- If you don't do this, you won't have a percent value.

- Anything calculated from measured quantities is uncertain.
- The area of a floor calculated from the measurement of its length and width has an uncertainty because of uncertainties.

- A coach bought a new stopwatch.

- Runners on the track coach's team clock 100m of sprints.
- The first- and second-place sprinters came in at the school's last track meet.

- The uncertainty in the stopwatch is too great to differentiate between sprint times.

- The precision of the measuring tool is an important factor in the accuracy of the measurement.
- A precise measuring tool can measure values in very small amounts.
- A ruler can measure length to the nearest millimeter, while a caliper can measure it to the nearest millimeter.
- The caliper can measure extremely small differences in length, which makes it a more precise measuring tool.
- The more precise the measuring tool is, the more accurate the measurement can be.

- We can only list as many digits as we originally measured, when we express measured values.
- If you use a standard ruler to measure the length of a stick, you can measure it to be.
- The measuring tool you used was not precise enough to measure a hundredth of a centimeter.
- The last digit in a measured value has been estimated by the person doing the measurement.

- To determine the number of significant digits in a value, start with the first measured value at the left and count the number of digits through the last digit written on the right.
- The measured value has significant figures.
- The figures show the precision of the tool used to measure the value.

- Special consideration is given to zeros.
- The zeros in 0.053 are not significant because they are only placekeepers.
- There are two significant figures.
- The zeros in 10.053 are not placekeepers but are significant.
- The style of writing numbers may affect the significance of the zeros in 1300.
- The number could be known to the last digit or it could be a placekeeper.
- 1300 could have two, three, or four significant figures.
- Zeros only serve as placekeepers.

- The number of significant figures should be determined.

- The number of significant digits in the final answer can't be greater than the number of significant digits in the least precise measured value.
- The rules for multiplication and division are different from the rules for addition and subtraction.

- The quantity with the least significant figures entering into the calculation should have the same number of significant figures.
- The area of a circle can be calculated using the radius.
- We can see how many significant figures the area has if the radius is only two.

- A calculator that has an eight-digit output will give you 1.11.

- The answer cannot contain more than the least precise measurement.
- If you buy 7.56 kilo of potatoes at a grocery store, you will get a scale with a precision of 0.01 kilo.
- The potatoes are measured by a scale with a precision of less than one kilo.
- You measure the potatoes on a bathroom scale with a precision of 0.1 kilogram.

- The least precise measurement is 13.7 kg.
- Our final answer must also be expressed to the 0.1 decimal place because this measurement is expressed to it.
- The answer is rounded to the tenths place, giving us 15.2 kilograms.

- Most numbers are assumed to have three significant figures.
- All worked examples use the same number of significant figures.
- An answer given to three digits is based on input good to at least three digits.
- The answer will have fewer significant figures if the input is less significant.
- The number of significant figures is reasonable for the situation.
- More accurate numbers are needed and more than three figures will be used in some topics.
- It does not affect the number of significant figures in a calculation if a number is exact.

- You can use the correct number of significant digits to express your answer.

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