Roosevelt was the only president to attempt to pack the Court as blatantly as he did.
The public backlash may have contributed to the slowing of the New Deal and the Republican victories in 1938 that left Roosevelt with a weakened Democratic majority in Congress.
His plan risked the policy success he was trying to achieve.
Roosevelt was reelected two more times.
The Court did an about-face.
One justice started voting for Roosevelt while the other retired.
His appointments to the Supreme Court put his stamp on it more effectively than any other president since Washington.
The court was packed by Roosevelt.
There is more to ideology when it refers to the law.
All interpretations of the Constitution must be informed by the intentions of the founding fathers, according to the view of justices.
The Constitution needs to be changed by amendment, not by judicial interpretation.
Robert Bork, a Reagan nominee who failed to be confirmed by the Senate, is a strict constructionist.
The principle was the result of justices' rewrite of the Constitution, according to Bork.
When the senators asked him about the right to privacy, another right enforced by the Court but not specified in the Constitution, Bork, the opposite position to strict constructionism, what might be the Constitution is a living document, that the founders could not possibly have anticipated all possible future circumstances.
Strict constructionists wouldn't agree with the idea of a constitutional right to privacy.
Both interpretivism and strict constructionism tend to be conservative because of their adherence to the status quo, but the two ideological scales do not necessarily go hand in hand.
Even though the Second Amendment refers to the right to bear arms in the context of militia membership, many conservatives would argue that this needs to be understood to protect the right to bear arms in a modern context.
Liberals rely on a strict reading of the Second Amendment to support their calls for tighter gun controls.
It's difficult for a president to know where a nominee stands on a strict constructionist-interpretivist scale if they don't have a lot of previous decisions in lower courts.
All of the presidents' appointees have followed the correct way of interpreting the Constitution.
Along with the strict constructionist-interpretivist divide, another ideological element rose in importance during the George W. Bush administration.
Bush was concerned about finding nominees who would interpret the Constitution in a way that supported the power of the president.
The unitary theory of the executive was supported by many members of the Bush administration.
Efforts by Congress to create independent agencies outside of the president's purview are unconstitutional.
Efforts by Congress and the courts to limit or interpret executive power in matters of national security were objected to by the administration.
Both of the men Bush appointed to the Court, Chief Justice John Roberts and Samuel Alito, are supporters of a strong executive office.
President Obama's Supreme Court nominees were reflective of his own interpretationivist ideology.
His first nomination, who joined the Court in September 2009, was more controversial for her comments about her race and gender than for her judicial views.
The Senate confirmed Neil Gorsuch to the Court after Republicans refused to hold hearings on Obama's nomination.
The simple meaning of the words in laws is what matters, not their congressional or historical context.
He has taken a more partisan stance to the Court, threatening those who were critical of his nomination, telling them "what comes around, comes around."
Since Nixon made a campaign issue of not appointing justices who were soft on crime, Republican presidents have been careful to pick conservative nominees.
Clinton was not overly liberal and Obama was a constitutional scholar, but the Democratic presidents did not seem to share the same desire to put liberals on the Court.
The death of Antonin Scalia in February 2016 left a hole in the Supreme Court that President Obama hoped to fill with the more moderateMerrick Garland.
Republican lawmakers preferred not to consider a new justice until after the presidential election in hopes that a Republican would win the office.
Neil Gorsuch was appointed to the bench after Donald Trump won the presidency.
More than half of the people nominated to the Supreme Court have a personal relationship with the president.
Franklin Roosevelt appointed people he knew and who were loyal to his New Deal, John F. Kennedy appointed his friend and associate, and Lyndon Johnson appointed his friend, Abe Fortas.
The White House counsel was forced to withdraw her name from consideration because she wasn't sufficiently qualified.
One of Barack Obama's nominees, Elena Kagan, was his first solicitor general.