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21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives -- Part 9
Chitin forms a matrix in crustaceans.
Chitin is different from the others.
The hydroxy group on C2 of glucose is replaced by an acetyl group.
The b@1,4' links of the glycosidic bonds give the chitin structural rigidity, strength, and stability that surpasses that of cellulose.
The strong, rigid polymer cannot be easily expanded, so it must be shed periodically as the animal grows.
It is tively nontoxic to mammals.
The fully developed animal has physical characteristics.
A frog and a human are both contained in a small part of the genome.
The nucleus is where the permanent genetic code is found in a typical cell.
The molecule of DNA has a weight of up to 50 billion.
Two copies of the daughter cells are created when the cell divides.
The medium for transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next is provided by DNA.
The smaller the RNA molecule, the easier it is to break down.
The nuclear DNA is being decoded and a working copy of it is served by the RNA.
After it has served its purpose, the messenger RNA is cleaved to its component parts, which are available for assembly into new RNA molecules.
The ribofuranoside rings of a nucleic acid are linked by a group ofphosphate ester groups.
There is a genetic component to HIV.
The anti-AIDS structure is similar to the 0 and 1 bits used by drugs to stop reverse transcription.
The structure of individ, the bonding of the monomers into single-stranded nucleic acids, and the base pairing that bind two strands into the double helix of nuclear DNA are considered first.
ribofuranoside units are linked byphosphate esters.
Section 23-8 shows that a nitrogen atom may be present in a glycoside.
A ribonucleoside is a b-d-ribofuranoside, which is a b@glucosidase of d-ribofuranose.
Purines can be used to form waste products.
The four bases make up the ribonucleosides cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and guanosine.
The base and sugar are numbered separately, and the carbons of the sugar are given primed numbers.
The C3 of the ribose ring is the 3' carbon of cytidine.
There are four ribonucleosides.
There are aromatic hydroxy groups in the tautomeric forms of Cytosine, uracil, and guanine.
It is stable to base, but quickly hydrolyzed by acid.
There is a mechanism for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.
Ribonucleosides require strong acid.
Ribonucleic acid consists of ribonucleosides.
The glycosidic bonds are already used to attach the Heterocyclic bases, so they can't be used to bond this polymer.
The ribonucleoside units are linked.
The ribofuranoside has a 5'@hydroxy group.
The ribonucleotides can be found in any of three states, depending on the solution's pH.
At the neutral pH of 7.4, there is a single protons on the phosphate group.
These groups are written completely ionized.
Major functional differences can be found in the structure of Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids Ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.
The primary genetic material in living cells is DNA.
A short-lived copy of part of the larger DNA molecule can be found in the synthesis of RNA.
Then, the cellular machinery converts the nucleotide sequence of the RNA molecule into a sequence of amino acids.
The end carbon of ribose and the hydroxy group are on the 3' carbon.
There is a linkage between the 5'@phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 3'@phosphate group of another.
The 5' end of one nucleoside is linked to the 3' end of another by a phos phate ester.
Unless it is in the form of a large ring, a molecule ofRNA has two ends.
There is a free 3' group at one end and a free 5' group at the other.
All of the descriptions of ribonucleosides, ribonucleotides, and ribonucleic acid apply to the components of DNA.
The d-ribose found in the RNA is different from the sugar found in the DNA.
The number 2 means that the oxygen atom is missing.
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