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Chapter 155: Glossary
This movement requires the input of energy, which is why it is called active transport.
Natural selection can include physical and intangible characteristics of organisms, such as lifespan and eyes and fingernails.
Pyruvate is converted to alcohol in two steps.
Blood volume and pressure increase.
It is put into the cord later.
Even if the barrier is removed, the two populations will not interbreed if they change enough.
The process begins with glycolysis and ends with the formation of NAD +.
halophiles, methanogens, and thermoacidophiles are some of the organisms that live in extreme environments.
The machinery that holds the tRNA is located at the site region.
The flow of hydrogens is used to drive the production of adenosine triphosphate.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS are divided.
It gets carbon and energy without consuming other organisms.
An animal that is harmless copies the appearance of an animal that is dangerous as a defense mechanism.
Two new daughter cells are pinched into the cell.
The "blending" hypothesis states that the genes contributed by two parents mix as if they are paint colors and the exact genetic makeup of each parent can never be recovered.
The group includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
The Calvin cycle is in C 4 plants.
The way in which carbon is fixed is altered by the C 4 photosynthesis process to better deal with the lack of CO 2 that comes from the closing of the stomata in hot, dry regions.
The C 4 plant is adapted to handle hot and dry conditions.
Plants store CO 2 in the form of acids until they need it during the day for photo-synthesis.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are the three main types of carbohydrates.
There is a central carbon on either side.
Both Rs are carbon chains.
One R is a hydrogen and the other is a carbon chain.
The functional group shows up along with the other groups.
Found in the peroxisomes.
They eat alone when there is plenty of food.
They form a unit when food scares them.
The central nervous system controls voluntary movement.
There are two hemispheres and four lobes per hemisphere.
In mammals, it contributes to the formation of the placenta.
A piece of chromosomes 9 has been swapped with a piece of chromosomes 22 in this disease.
The immune system accepts any cell that has the same match as friendly.
Anything with a different histocompatibility complex is foreign.
The cells of the immune system interact with these antigens.
There are two major forms of competition.
Only one of the daughter cells has the parent's DNA in it.
They both respond the same way to an environmental challenge.
It produces tissue that is new.
During prophase I of meiosis, pieces from the two chromosomes are exchanged between each other.
One of the mechanisms that allow offspring to differ from their parents is this.
The excessive mucus that accumulates in the lungs and digestive tract is caused by a faulty version of a gene.
Children with the disease die at a very young age.
Some insects have designs on their wings that look like large eyes, making them look more imposing than they are.
There aren't enough raw materials for the growth and survival of more cells.
Food, waste, and disease are examples of density dependent limiting factors.
Molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration during a passive process.
A cross between two gametes gives a 9:3:3:1 ratio in the offspring.
There are common disaccharides.
CH 3 groups are added to the bases of DNA, rendering it inactive.
In a 5' to 3' direction, DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the growing DNA chain.
The process of copying something.
During the S phase of the cell cycle, the proper amount of DNA is received from every cell produced.
Down syndrome affects one of every 700 children born in the United States.
It can lead to mental retardation, heart defects, short stature, and facial features.
Sex-linked dis-order is caused by the absence of an essential muscle protein that leads to progressive weakness of the muscles and a loss of coordination.
Almost every organ of the body is affected by the presence of trisomy 18.
The energy level of the system drops when an electron passes to another member.
The enzymes can be used to react with more than one copy of the same substance and have a major effect on a reaction.
The sperm waits until it is called on to do its job to complete its maturation.
A 9:4:3 ratio is produced by a di hybrid cross.
They are categorized according to their mode of nutrition acquisition, mechanism of movement, shape, and other characteristics.
Organisms can be multicellular or unicellular.
When water leaves our bodies in the form of sweat, it functions in thermoregulation.
Evolution happens to populations, not individuals, and describes change in allele frequencies in populations with time.
The substance is ejected from the cell by the fusion of the substance with the membrane.
A filial generation is the first generation of offspring from a genetic cross.
A filial generation is the second generation of offspring.
This process does not require energy.
It stimulates the production of sperm in males and in females it causes the development of the ovarian follicle.
Spiders, birds, and cats all eat bugs.
The genes necessary for the production of a sex pillus are found in F-plasmid.
Unless it occurs late in production, it is usually a nonfunctional protein.
The first growth phase of the cell cycle produces all the necessary raw materials.
The second growth phase of the cell cycle produces all the necessary raw materials.
There is a chance that the host DNA could find its way into another cell.
An example of this could be eye color, where B represents brown and b represents blue.
There are three possible genotypes: brown, Bb and blue.
During the process of glycolysis, a glucose molecule is broken down through a series of reactions.
The Organelle modifies macromolecules by adding sugars and other molecules.
The products are sent to other parts of the cell.
cascade pathways are vital to signal G-proteins.
The adenyl cyclase molecule is activated by these proteins.
The sperm is usually transported through the use of pollen.
The major gymnosperm is conifers.
There is a case where a population is not evolving.
Individuals with this condition have difficulty with blood clotting.
They are the consumers of the world.
The T cells of our body are affected by HIV.
When a person is in their 30s or 40s, Huntington's disease can appear and be fatal.
This is due to the fact that inbreeding increases the likelihood that two deleterious alleles will end up in the same offspring.
The dominant and intermediate phenotypes are not the same; neither allele dominates the other.
Physical contact or chemical signaling can influence this.
Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and others are exceptions.
The parents' genetic input is mixed with the phenotype.
Sensory input and motor output are integrated.
Organisms speed up in places they don't like and slow down in places they do like.
Some people have male sex organs but are sterile and have feminine body characteristics.
In the matrix of the mitochondria, pyruvate is broken down completely to H 2 O and CO 2 to produce 3 NADH, 1 FADH 2 and 1ATP.
Populations with low reproductive rates are selected.
Post Natal care is required for the offspring produced by K organisms.
Pyruvate is reduced to lactate by NADH, which is needed for the restart of glycolysis.
This is called the "dominant" trait.
The "recessive" trait is the variety that is hidden.
In other words, the inheritance of a particular trait does not affect the inheritance of another trait.
If an individual is BbRr for two genes, gametes could contain br, bR, or br.
The B and b all genes are not related to the R and r all genes.
If an individual is Bb for eye color, during gamete formation one gamete would receive a B and the other made from that cell would receive a b.
There is a hormone called luteinizing hormone.
The release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary is triggered by the surge of LH.
There are three important lipids.
The lymphatic system protects the body from the harmful effects of the lymphatic system.
The body's fight against the infectious agent causes these nodes to swell up.
B cells and T cells are the main types of lymphocytes.
Stem cells form in the bone marrow of the body.
The viral DNA is quietly reproduced by the cell every time it reproduces itself, and this allows the virus to stay alive from generation to generation without killing the host cell.
The genes are connected on the basis of frequencies.
One unit is equal to 1 percent.
When an invader comes back to the body, the memory cells are able to destroy him very quickly.
The addition of incorrect amino acids to the chain can be a result of these substitutions.
A 3:1 phenotype ratio is given by a mono hybrid cross between gametes.
The most important monosaccharide isglucose, which is used in cellular respiration.
The M phase is when a cell separates into two new cells.
Two species of Mullerian mimicry mimic each other's color scheme in an effort to increase the speed with which predator learn to avoid them.
It is always random when it comes to which genes are affected, and the changes in allele frequencies that occur as a result may not be.
The Internet of the body is formed by them.
The neural tube gives rise to the central nervous system.
Both photosystem I and II are used.
Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter's syndrome are examples.
The early placement of a stop codon leads to premature synthesis.
A nonfunctional protein is usually the result of this type of mutation.
It is the site of posttranscriptional modification ofRNA.
The lagging DNA strand consists of tiny pieces that are later connected by an enzyme to make a double-stranded daughter DNA molecule.
A single ovum or egg is produced during a meiotic cycle.
There are important examples of sugars and acids.
It will flow from a region with a lower solute concentration to a region with a higher solute concentration.
Animals have two, one on either side of the body.
Plants only have one ovary.
Eggs move from the ovary to the uterus.
About 1 out of every 12,000-16,000 live births have Patau Presence syndrome, which causes serious brain and circulatory defects.
If parents pass certain conditions to their offspring, it's a use of a pedigree.
The sensory and motor divisions carry information away from the central nervous system.
Some of the characteristics of the peas were round, wrinkled, green, yellow, purple, and white.
It is the same as the oxidation of the cells.
Plants that experience photorespiration have a lower capacity for growth.
The light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions are involved in this.
The hormone auxin is involved in this process.
Pioneer species do grunt work to improve the once-uninhabited volcanic rock until future species take over.
The main chromosome is not replicated by plamids.
The plasmodium is a unified clumped unicellular mass.
It can either be the cause of Malaria or the cause of the clumped unicellular mass that fungi form under certain feeding conditions.
There are two types of polysaccharides: storage and structural.
A major change in the environment and equilibrate at a new, lower carrying capacity could cause the population to dip below the carrying capacity.
Prion diseases can cause dementia, muscular control problems, and loss of balance.
The P site region is in the synthesis machinery.
The number of members of that level is represented by the boxes in this pyramid.
A smaller number of individuals spread out over a given area are caused by the highest consumers in the chain being large.
A Statistic shows how an increase in temperature affects metabolism.
This results in DNA fragments with single-stranded ends called "sticky ends," which find and connect with other DNA fragments containing the same ends.
When the host cell undergoes normal transcription, the newly transcribed DNA is incorporated into the host's nucleus.
The relative rate at which one molecule migrates compared to the solvent of a paper chromatograph is R f Variable.
The nucleolus contains ribosomes.
The appropriate nucleotides are added to the 3' end of the strand.
A process that glues exons back together after removing introns from newly produced mRNA.
The Golgi apparatus is often used to carry out further modification of the RER produced genes.
Populations that experience rapid growth of the J-curve variety are selected.
The offspring produced by R-selected organisms are plentiful, mature quickly, and require very little care after birth.
It is associated with cardiovascular disease.
The Savanna soil tends to be low in nutrition.
They are directed to food of interest.
One strand of the parent's DNA goes to the daughter cell, while the other strand goes to the second daughter cell.
The sickling can cause pain, weakness, and fatigue.
The procedure is used to determine if a particular sequence of nucleotides is present in the sample.
A piece of the host DNA could end up in another cell if it is accidentally brought with it.
Each meiotic cycle, four haploid sperm are produced.
The seminiferous tubules are where this occurs.
At the end of the cell cycle, each daughter cell has a complete set of chromosomes.
The complexes affect the transcription in the nucleus.
Cholesterol, estrogen, and testosterone are examples.
See the somatotropic hormone.
The fragments find and connect with each other.
Polyploidy and balanced polymorphism can occur.
This is where calcium gates are opened in response to the changing potential, which causes neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic gap between the axon and the target cell.
The NTs cause a new impulse in the cell.
Gymnosperms are the most prominent plant life in Canada.
There are pine and other needle-bearing trees in this biome.
The promoter region contains the TATA box group of nucleotides.
A fatal genetic storage disease that renders the body unable to break down a particular type of lipid.
The soil is considered to be one of the most fertile.
Test crosses can be used to determine the unknown genotype.
This can affect the replication of DNA.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by this structure and is used to maintain the endometrium.
The greatest diversity of species can be found in tropical rainforests.
The shrubs and grasses that are able to survive are the ones that dominate.
Turner syndrome affects females who are missing an X chromosomes.
Viruses do not have ribosomes for metabolism.
A lot of the water goes to the clouds.
In the form of precipitation, the water is returned to the earth.
One of the two X chromosomes in each cell remains coiled as a Barr body during the development of the female embryo.
Only the active X chromosomes are expressed by a cell.
The support structure strengthens the plant.
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