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17.3 Radiation Therapy
The dephasing of the hydrogen NMR signal is more rapid in the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin.
It is possible to clearly identify regions of increased brain activity.
A wide range of cognitive, motor and sensory activities can be identified with the use of FMRI.
The majority of the fMRI applications have been related to research.
In a 2003 study, Eisenberg and colleagues set up a situation where subjects experienced social exclusion.
The same part of the brain that is activated during physical pain is also activated in a situation like this.
The clinical applications of fMRI are still in their infancy, but there is little doubt that within a few years fMRI will have a major role in medicine.
fMRI is being used to detect neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.
The results show that fMRI can provide important information that can be used to make surgical procedures more accurate.
fMRI is likely to be useful in the areas of pain management and functional testing of drugs.
The energies of the particles emitted by radioactive nuclei are far greater than those of the electrons that bind them.
When such radiation enters into biological materials, it can rip off electrons from the molecule and change its structure.
If the damaged molecule is an important component of a cell, the whole cell may die.
Water is broken up by the radiation into fragments.
The fragments combine with the biological molecule in a bad way.
Radiation may give up its energy and heat the tissue to a dangerously high temperature.
A large dose of radiation can kill a lot of cells.
Smaller but still dangerous doses can cause irreversible changes.
Radiation can be used therapeutically in controlled doses.
In the treatment of certain types of cancer, an ampul containing radioactive material is implanted near the growth.
The hope is to destroy the cancer without damaging the healthy tissue by controlling the dose.
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