Chapter 30 -- Part 3: The Great Depression and World War II
Stalin believed that Great Britain and France secretly hoped the Nazis and Bolsheviks would destroy each other, and that war between Germany and the Soviet Union was inevitable.
In August 1939 Hitler and Stalin signed a non-aggression pact that shocked the world.
If the other became involved in war, each dictator promised to remain neutral.
In the event of a political and territorial reorganization, eastern Europe was divided into German and Soviet zones.
Everything was set for Hitler.
On the day of the nonaggression pact, he told his generals, "My only fear is that at the last moment some dirty dog will come up with a mediation plan."
On September 1, 1939, the Germans attacked Poland.
Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.
The Second World War began in Europe.
Hitler's and Japan's ambitions were so great that world war broke out.
The Nazis established a huge empire of death and destruction in Europe.
After attacking the United States in 1941, Japan expanded its empire throughout Asia and the Pacific Ocean.
The Grand Alliance of Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union overwhelmed the invaders in manpower and military strength.
The Nazi and Japanese empires were short-lived.
Hitler's armies used planes, tanks, and trucks to destroy Poland in four weeks.
The eastern half of Poland and the Baltic states of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia were taken over by the Soviet Union.
The Nazi lightning war began in the spring of 1940.
German motorized columns broke through southern Belgium and into France.
Hitler used planes, tanks, and trucks to crush Poland in four weeks.
As Hitler's armies poured into France, Henri-Philippe Petain, a national hero of the Great War, formed a new French government and accepted defeat.
Italy was an ally of the Soviet Union and Hitler ruled most of western continental Europe by July 1940.
Britain was the only one that remained unconquered.
The map shows the extent of Hitler's empire before the Battle of Stalingrad in late 1942 and the subsequent advances of the Allies until Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945.
Germany needed to gain control of the air to prepare for an invasion of Britain.
In the Battle of Britain, German planes attacked British airfields and key factories, dueling with British defenders high in the skies.
In September Hitler began bombing British cities.
British aircraft factories increased production.
Hitler abandoned his plans for a German invasion of Britain by September, after Britain won the air war.
Hitler's obsession with creating an empire for the "master race" allowed him to dictate policy.
Moscow was besieged, and most of Ukraine had been conquered by October.
The Soviets did not fall, and when a severe winter hit German armies, they were stopped.
Hitler believed that the bombing of London could break the will of the British people.
Londoners went about their business with courage and calm determination despite the huge destruction caused by the bombing.
Hitler ruled an enormous European empire.
The guiding principle of Nazi totalitarianism is racial imperialism.
The Germans believed that the Dutch, Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes were related to them.
The French were in the middle position.
Jews and Slavs were harshly treated at the bottom of the New Order.
Hitler's program gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples above the Latin peoples and the Slavs and Jews.
Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians would die or be killed off in Hitler's vision of a vast eastern colonial empire.
Himmler and the elite SS corps implemented a program of destruction in occupied territories to create a "mass settlement space" for Germans.
All European Jews were condemned by the Nazi state.
After Warsaw fell in 1939, the Nazis forced Jews in the occupied territories to move to urban ghettos, while German Jews were sent to occupied Poland.
After Germany attacked Russia in 1941 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 The final solution of the Jewish question was ordered by Hitler and the Nazi leadership.
Jews were packed like cattle onto freight trains and sent to concentration camps throughout the Nazi empire.
The photo shows the inhumanity of Nazi racism.
Families from the Warsaw Ghetto are being forced out of their homes by German soldiers and sent to concentration camps.
Some Jews were sent to slave labor camps, where they were starved and worked to death.
Most victims were taken to shower rooms, which were actually gas chambers.
6 million Jews were murdered by the end of the 20th century.
Historians blamed Hitler and the Nazi leadership, saying that ordinary Germans had little knowledge of the camps and that those who cooperated had no alternative.
In most occupied countries local non-German officials cooperated in the arrest and deportation of Jews.
Primo Levi spoke about the Holocaust.
The Nazis made some prisoners into slave laborers, but a few of them survived.
One of the most influential witnesses to the Holocaust was an Italian Jew named Primo Levi.
In Italy's small Jewish community, Levi's family belonged to the professional classes.
The young Levi received the highest honors in chemistry after graduating from the University of Torino.
He joined the antifascist resistance movement two years after graduating because of discrimination he faced when Italy introduced racial laws.
He was deported to Auschwitz with 650 Italian Jews in February 1944.
Levi was one of them.
Nothing prepared Levi for what he saw.
The prisoners were branded with tattoos and crammed into huts.
Levi was hoping for some sign of prisoner solidarity in this terrible environment, but found only a desperate struggle of each against all and enormous status differences among prisoners.
Many stunned and bewildered newcomers, beaten and demoralized by their bosses, collapsed and died.
Food ration and working conditions were so bad that ordinary Jewish prisoners died in two to three months.
Levi was a sensitive and noncombative person.
He became one of the "saved" and was surprised by the moral implications that he would ponder all his life.
German criminals were released from prison to become brutal camp guards, non-Jewish political prisoners competed for jobs in order to get better conditions, and a small number of Jewish men plotted and struggled for the power of life and death over other Jewish prisoners.
Levi believed that he had entered the "gray zone" of moral compromise, despite not being a Jewish boss.
Only a few superior individuals, the stuff of saints and martyrs, survived the death camps without changing their moral stance.
Levi's profession gave him compromise and salvation.
Levi was Interviewed by a German technocrat for the camp's synthetic rubber program and he performed brilliantly in scientific German.
Levi was able to pilfer equipment that could be traded for food and necessities when he worked in the warm camp laboratory.
Levi was supported by three saintly prisoners who refused to do evil things.
Levi was not evacuated by the Nazis and shot to death like most Jewish prisoners in the camp infirmary as the Russian armies prepared to liberate it.
The nightmare that the Holocaust would be ignored or forgotten after the war haunted Primo Levi.
Wanting the world to understand the Jewish genocide in all its complexity so that never again would people tolerate such atrocities, he grappled with his vision of individual choice and moral compromise in a hell designed to make the victims collaborate and persecute each other.
The testimonies are powerful.
The Nationalists and the Communists were unable to defeat the 1.5 million Japanese troops who were bogged down in China by late 1938.
As war broke out in Europe, the Japanese increased their efforts in China.
Japanese troops committed shocking atrocities, including the Rape of Nanjing, when they implemented a savage policy of "kill all, burn all, destroy all".
The Japanese are thought to have killed 4 million Chinese people during the second SinoJapanese War.
The Japanese created a self sufficient Asian economic zone in August of 1940.
Their true intentions were to eventually rule over a vast Japanese empire, even though they said they were going to liberate Asia from Western imperialism.
Ultranationalists tried to convince Japan's youth that it was a sacred country.
In September 1940, Japan signed a formal alliance with Germany and Italy, and was granted control over northern French Indochina.
The United States froze scrap iron sales to Japan and applied further economic sanctions because they were upset with Japan's occupation of Indochina.
Japan's leaders faced a critical decision as 1941 opened.
The United States supplied over 90 percent of Japan's oil needs at the time.
Japan had only a year and a half's worth of military and economic oil reserves, which were quickly used up during the war with China.
All of Japan's oil, rubber, and tin needs could be met by the Netherlands' colonial possessions in Indonesia.
All oil exports to Japan were embargoed by President Roosevelt on July 26, 1941.
Before running out of oil, Japan had to either recall its forces from China or go to war.
The choice was war.
On December 7, 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S.
Japan hoped to cripple its Pacific rival, gain time to build a defensible Asian empire, and eventually win an ill-defined compromise peace.
The Japanese attack was limited.
The American Far East Air Force was destroyed by the Japanese at Clark Air Base in the Philippines.
The United States entered the war after Americans were humiliated by these unexpected defeats.
The United States was declared a war by Hitler.
European and American colonies were attacked by Japanese armies.
The Dutch and British armies were defeated by small but well-trained Japanese armies.
After American forces surrendered the Philippines in May 1942, Japan held a vast empire in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific.
In 1942 Japanese forces overran an enormous amount of territory, which the Allies slowly regained.
Compare the extent of the Japanese empire in 1942 to the Japanese-controlled territory in 1945.
The Greater East Asian Coprosperity Sphere was the name of the Japanese empire.
Asian faith in "co-prosperity" and support for Japan declined as the war progressed, but most local populations were glad to see the Western powers go.
Japanese military commanders and their superiors in Tokyo had real power because the Japanese set up anticolonial governments and promised genuine independence.
The Japanese never treated local populations as equals, and the occupiers exploited local peoples for Japan's wartime needs.
Local populations were aroused by cruel behavior.
The basic tenets of Japanese ultranationalism were summed up in a pamphlet for high school and university students.
Ultranationalism in Japan combined a sense of mission with intense group solidarity and unquestioning devotion to the emperor.
Japanese expansion into Manchuria and the war in China were part of Japan's call to protect the throne and free Asia from Western rule.
Some students and adults did not believe in the myths of Japan's state religion.
Japanese soldiers' determination to fight to the death was an indicator of the influence that extremists had on them.
The way of the Emperor's subjects is to guard and maintain the Imperial Throne with the Heavens and the Earth in the background.
This isn't the sphere of the abstract, but a way of daily practice based on history.
The life and activities of the nation are all connected to the task of giving great firmness to the foundation of the Empire.
Modern history has been marked by the formation of unified nations in Europe and their battles for supremacy in the acquisition of colonies.
The discovery of the American continent stimulated Europeans to find their way to India and China.
Their march into all parts of the world paved the way for their world domination politically, economically, and culturally, and led them to act freely as they pleased, and to believe that they alone were justified in their outrageous behavior.
The invention of machines demanded a large amount of materials and overseas markets for the disposal of manufactured goods.
The result was that wars of the strong preying on the weak were repeated as a result of the severe contest for colonial acquisition and trade competition.
The rise and fall of the influence of Spain, Portugal, Holland, Britain, France, and other countries in the modern age DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch
The World War resulted in self-destruction.
After the war, cries were raised by the men of those countries that the Western civilization was collapsing.
Britain, France, and the United States started a movement to maintain the status quo.
A movement aiming at social revolution through class conflict on the basis of thoroughgoing materialistic like communism was also developed.
The rise of Nazism and Fascism was very strong.
The new racial principles and totalitarianism in Germany and Italy are designed to remove and improve the evils of individualism and liberalism.
The future of the civilization and the creation of a new culture is suggested by the fact that theseitarian principles show concern for Oriental culture and spirit.
The collapse of the world of the old order has been assured by the orientation of world history.
A new world order based on moral principles has been opened by Japan.
The Manchurian Affair was suppressed for a long time.
Japan stepped out for the creation of a world based on moral principles and the construction of a new order because of this.
This was a representation of the spirit, profound and lofty, embodied in the Empire-founding, and an unavoidable action for its national life and world mission.
The Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere is reduced to a state of quasi colony by Europe and America in order to rescue them from their control.
The country will have to set up an economic structure for co-prosperity and eradicate the evils of exploitation.
Japan must strive to change their following of European and American culture in order to contribute to the creation of a right world.
The Orient has been destroyed for several hundred years.
Its rehabilitation is not easy.
The creation of a new culture and the establishment of a new order can be difficult.
The conquest of these difficulties alone will help establish a morally controlled world, in which all nations can cooperate and all people can secure their proper position.
Since the founding of the Empire, Japan has been basking under a benign rule of a line of Emperors, and has been growing and developing in an atmosphere of great harmony as a nation.
The country has been ruled by the Imperials.
Japan is the only country in the world that has such a lofty mission.
It can be said that the construction of a new structure and a defense state is all in order that Japan may revive her proper national structure and come back to her original status of national strength.
The fountain source of the Japanese nation is the Imperial Family.
The Imperial Throne is supported by the subjects by being loyal to the Emperor in disregard of self.
The Imperial Throne has been guarded and maintained by the Japanese people since the Empire's founding.
The key point is to serve the Emperor.
When our lives are offered to the Emperor and the state, they will become true.
Our own private life is a fulfillment of the way of the subjects; it is not private, but public, as it is held by the subjects supporting the Throne.
While the Nazis and the Japanese built their empires, the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union joined together in an unlikely military pact called the Grand Alliance.
The war brought them together.
The United States entered the war in December of 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The leaders of the Grand Alliance agreed to a set forth.
After defeating Hitler, the Allies would launch an attack on Japan.
The principle of the surrender of Germany and Japan was adopted by the Allies to encourage mutual trust.
The policy made the Grand Alliance stronger because it denied Germany and Japan the chance to divide their foes.
The military strategy that was adopted by Roosevelt called for the defeat of Hitler in Europe before the United States launched an all-out strike against Japan.
The military resources of the Grand Alliance were great.
The United States had a unique ability to wage war with its large population and mighty industry, which it harnessed in 1943 to outproduce the rest of the world.
The Soviet Union might have defeated Germany without the help of the West.
The Germans attacked Stalingrad in July of 1942 after their offensive against the Soviet Union was halted in 1941.
The German Sixth Army of 300,000 men were surrounded by the Soviet armies.
By the end of January 1943, 123,000 soldiers had surrendered.
The Western Allies were not prepared to attack Germany directly through France.
An American force took control of the French colonies.
Allied forces invaded Italy in the spring of 1943.
Mussolini was deposed and the new Italian government accepted surrender in September 1943.
Italy seemed to have been liberated.
Mussolini was made the head of a puppet government by the Germans.
Rome and all of northern Italy were taken over by the German armies.
They surrendered on April 29, 1945.
Mussolini was executed the day after he was captured by partisan forces.
The greatest naval invasion in history took place on June 6, 1944, when American and British forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, France.
More than 2 million men and almost half a million vehicles were pushed inland.
In February 1945, three months before his death, President Roosevelt met with the other two leaders of the Grand Alliance at the Yalta resort town.
Although Stalin made some important concessions, many historians argue that Roosevelt was already too ill to join in demanding stronger guarantees from Stalin regarding selfdetermination for eastern Europe.
In February 1945, Franklin Roosevelt met with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta to discuss plans for the rest of the war in Europe, Russia's participation in the war in Asia, and the postwar world.
Roosevelt was criticized for handing over eastern Europe and northeast Asia to the Soviet Union.
Stalin made a lot of concessions as well.
American troops crossed the Rhine into Germany in 1945.
On April 26, 1945, the Red Army met American forces on the Elbe River in Germany, after the Soviets had advanced steadily since July 1943.
Hitler committed suicide as the Soviets fought their way into Berlin.
The German commanders capitulated on May 7.
The fate of the war in Asia was decided by the greatest naval battles in history.
The Japanese had a plan to take Port Moresby and destroy the U.S. in 1942.
The Americans skillfully won a series of naval victories after breaking the secret Japanese code.
The Battle of the Coral Sea halted the Japanese advance on Port Moresby.
In the Battle of Midway in June 1942, American pilots sank all four of the Japanese aircraft carriers and established naval equality with Japan in the Pacific.
The United States gradually gained control of the air and sea.
The United States produced more aircraft in 1943 than Japan did in the entire war.
The Americans and their Australian allies launched a campaign toward Japan in July 1943.
By 1944 hundreds of American submarines were hunting in "wolf packs" and decimating shipping and economic links in Japan.
The resistance American forces faced in the central and western Pacific in 1943 and 1944 hardened them.
As it moved toward Japan, the war without mercy intensified as a result of spiraling violence, mutual hatred, and dehumanizing racial stereotypes.
The U.S. and Filipino forces held out on the peninsula until April 1942, when they surrendered to the Japanese.
The Japanese executed most of the prisoners because they were sick, wounded, or suffering from malnutrition.
Other prisoners, such as those pictured here, were marched to exhaustion without water in the blazing sun on the Bataan Death March, and many were beaten to death.
The U.S. began bombing the Japanese home islands in June 1944.
Leyte Island in the Philippines was the location of the landing of the American forces.
The Japanese lost 13 large warships, including 4 aircraft carriers, while the Americans lost 3 small ships in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
The Japanese navy was done.
Despite huge losses, Japanese troops continued to fight.
The bloodiest battles of the Pacific war took place on Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
American commanders believed that an invasion of Japan could cost 1 million American lives and 10 to 20 million Japanese lives.
Japan's industry and cities were largely destroyed by American bombing.
The war in Europe ended in 1945, and Japanese leaders were divided.
Hardliners argued that Japan had never been invaded or lost a war.
A peace group wanted a negotiated end to the war.
The Potsdam Declaration was issued by Truman, Churchill, and Stalin.
It was not clear if the Japanese emperor would be treated as a war criminal.
Emperor Hirohito was considered a god by the Japanese.
The Allies wanted the surrender to be free.
On August 6 and 9, 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Japan.
The Japanese puppet state of Manchuria was invaded by the Soviets on August 9.
The Japanese announced their surrender on August 14, 1945.
The Second World War had claimed the lives of more than 50 million people.
The brilliant blue-white "lightning flash" that became a fiery orange ball consuming everything that would burn was the first thing that Yasuko Yamagata saw when she was seventeen.
Thirty years after the atomic attack, Yamagata painted this scene.
An incinerated woman with a baby in her arms lies near a water tank filled with charred corpses.
The Great Depression was caused by the 1929 American stock market crash.
Western democracies responded with relief programs.
Some capitalist democracies were replaced by authoritarian and fascist regimes.
World War II ended the depression.
The fascist dictatorships of the 1920s and 1930s were violent and repressive.
Mass purges of the Communist Party in the 1930s led to the imprisonment and deaths of millions.
The humiliation of World War I and the terms of the Versailles treaty, as well as racist prejudices against "inferior" peoples, were used by Hitler and the Nazi elite to rally support.
German voters turned to Hitler during the Great Depression.
British and French leaders tried to appease each other after he declared the Versailles treaty null and void.
On September 1, 1939, his unprovoked attack on Poland forced the Allies to start World War II.
Poland and Germany's western neighbors were seized by the Nazis.
Hitler had a plan to build a new order based on race.
Millions of Jews and other undesirables were killed in the Holocaust.
The Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere was created by the Japanese.
"Asia for the Asians" meant nothing but Japanese domination and control.
The United States entered the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
The Grand Alliance of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union defeated Germany and Japan in 1945.
After the Great War, there were doubts about the interconnectedness of the world's inhabitants, but as events on a truly global scale touched everyone, those doubts faded.
The world war brought death and destruction.
The world's leaders revived the idea of a League of Nations at war's end and formed the United Nations to prevent tragedies from happening again.
The world became more divided after the United Nations tried to bring nations together.
We will see how less developed nations emerged after the war in Chapters 32 and 33.
The bonds of colonialism were broken by many of them by turning the nineteenth-century European ideology of nationalism against its creators.
Explain the significance of each item.
Europe, Latin America, and East Asia were affected by the Great Depression.
This tumultuous decade has been described as a masterful, sweeping account.
Historical studies of the two dictatorships are based on archival sources.