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22.2 Carbon: Why It Is Unique
Carbon is the only element that can form chains.
Chains can be formed with Silicon.
The prevalence of oxygen in our atmosphere means that silicates are readily oxidation to form.
Carbon chains can exist peacefully in an oxygen-rich environment with the same strength of O bond.
The simplest organic compounds are carbon and hydrogen.
Many different types of hydrocarbons exist because of the unique nature of carbon.
We use oil as a fuel.
Many different consumer products, including fabrics, soaps, dyes, cosmetics, drugs, plastic, and rubber, are made from hydrocarbons.
There are bonds between carbon atoms.
Alkanes have single bonds between carbon atoms, alkenes have double bonds, and alkynes have a triple bond.
The formulas only apply to structures with no more than one bond.
The simplest way to represent compounds has been used throughout the book.
The same atoms can bond together in different ways in organic chemistry, which is why the formulas are not sufficient.
Consider an alkane with four carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms.
They are different compounds because of their different structures.
Isomerism is found in organic chemistry.
Butane has two structures.
Structural formulas are used by organic chemists.
The structural formula shows how the hydrogen and carbon atoms are bonded.
Condensed structural formulas can show some of the bonds or none at all.
The Condensed Structural formula for butane can be written.
We can quickly draw complex structures with carbon skeleton formulas.
Structural formulas are not three-dimensional representations of molecule, but rather two-dimensional representations that show how atoms are bond together.
Consider the two Condensed Structural formulas for butane and the corresponding space-filling models below them as shown on the right.
Even though they are drawn differently, the same molecule formulas are the same.
Double and triple bonds are represented in structural formulas.
The kind of formula we use depends on how much information we want to show.
Use lines to represent each carbon-carbon bond in the carbon skeleton formulas.
The carbon atom is represented by each end and bend.
There are two types of stereoisomers: geometric and optical.
Section 22.5 talks about geometric isomers.
The molecule can't be superimposed on its mirror image.
There is no way to get all four substituent atoms to align if we try to superimpose the two.
The original molecule is not superimposable on the mirror image.
Your right and left hands have the same optical isomers.
You can't superimpose one on the other because they are mirror images.
A right-handed glove does not fit on your left hand.
The molecule shown here are nonsuperimposable mirror images and areomers of one other.
It's important that optical isomerism is included in organic chemistry.
One or the other enantiomer is usually active in biological systems.
The primary fuel of cells isglucose.
Only one of the enantiomers has that familiar sweet taste, and only that one can fuel cellular functioning.
There are differences in the physical and chemical properties of enantiomers.
The optical isomers of 3-methylhexane have the same freezing points, melting points, and densities.
There are two important ways in which the properties of enantiomers differ from one another.
When there is only one environment, optical isomers exhibit different chemical behavior than when there are two.
There are large biological Molecules that are catalysts for reactions in living organisms.
It doesn't fit.
One of the enantiomers fits the template, but the other doesn't.
Most biological molecules are not all active in the same way, and usually only one or the other enantiomer is active in biological systems.
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