Edited Invalid date
chapter 2 -- Part 3:
For the times, the Sophist teachings that equate morality with success or pleasure and traditional beliefs about truth, standards, and duty were radical.
The more conservative citizens in Greece were shocked and alarmed by the news of these teachings.
The laws and moral code of the state were threatened by such ideas.
He agreed that social order requires reasonable conformity to the laws of the community.
The conservative elders were not reassured.
They were upset to think that one person's ideas were the same as another's.
They argued that the laws of gods and mortals can't be respected and upheld unless the citizens believe them to be true.
The greatest teacher of the fifth century was Socrates, who was the epitome of the Sophist view of how to get on in life with the full force of his intellect and will.
He was not a fan of the Olympian religion or of traditional morality, but he was convinced of a higher truth.
He spoke of himself as a seeker after knowledge, but he did not claim to know this truth.
He was mistaken for one of the Sophists because of his skepticism and interest in human affairs.
He was always asking questions and testing the answers people gave him.
The Athenians didn't like having to justify their ideas to Socrates.
He cross-examined his associates on their definitions of justice, right and beauty, moving them towards answers that seemed more and more certain.
Theocratic method is a procedure for reaching truth by means of dialogue or discussion.
It wasn't necessary for Socrates to observe and collect data in order to find absolute knowledge because he believed that truth is hidden by sense impressions.
The philosopher is supposed to recover the truth buried in the mind.
The theory of knowledge is related to the idea of the soul.
Plato's writings about the soul, as well as his other views, come to us through his writings.
The last hours of his teacher were described by Plato.
Condemned to death by an Athenian jury on charges of corrupting the youth and doubting the gods, Socrates faces his fate cheerfully.
He believes that the soul is eternal and that it is hindered by the troubles of the body.
Death gives the chance to see the truth more clearly.
The real aim of life is to know the truth, not to seek the satisfaction of the body.
His search for truth continued after he died.
Through the writings of Plato, we know a lot about the views of Socrates.
It's hard to say where the ideas of Plato and Socrates end.
Plato wrote dialogues in which he usually appears as the chief speaker.
Plato carried his teacher's main thoughts through a full and positive development.
Plato founded a school in Athens after traveling through the Mediterranean.
The most influential intellectual center of the ancient world was the Academy.
It was a model for similar schools in other cities after its founder's death.
The Sophist theory of relative truth was attacked by Plato.
He admitted that the world is made of imperfect nature in a constant state of change.
He created a picture of the universe that satisfied his conservative temperament and intelligence.
The world is composed of perfect ideas written by God.
The ideas of man, horse, tree, beauty, state, and justice are the highest of all ideas.
These are independent of individuals and can only be known through the mind.
Though they may offer clues to the ideas, the physical objects that the senses report are at best imperfect reflections or copies of the master ideas.
Philosophers should focus on the discovery and contemplation of the perfect, the eternal, the real.
This conception has been found to be illuminating and satisfying by Plato and similar people.
Plato wanted to prove that he could adapt to the teachings of Christianity.
The Christians were urged to reflect on the world of spirit--the "other" world of divine order and perfection.
According to Plato, affairs on earth are best guided by absolute principles.
Plato believed that human institutions should aim at social justice and order.
The human body and the body politic were designed to do their jobs.
Friction, envy, and inefficiency are the main sources of human and social sickness.
Plato felt that the state should be structured according to natural capacities.
The majority of its citizens would make up the class of Workers, who would be sorted into various occupations according to their skills.
The Guardian class would be trained in the arts of war.
The rulers of the state would be chosen from this disciplined class.
The Workers would be allowed to live naturally, but the Guardians would follow a strict and austere life.
Matings among them would be arranged by the state.
Babies with physical defects would be left to die of exposure and normal infants would be taken from their mothers and placed in a community nursery.
Parents wouldn't be allowed to own personal property and they wouldn't be allowed to know their own children.
If rulers are to become truly selfless and dedicated to the welfare of the whole community, then extreme measures are necessary.
The same for males and females was to be controlled.
The right kind of music, art, and poetry would be taught so that the pupils would receive the desired moral indoctrination.
The men and women who were chosen from this class to be the rulers would have to serve a period of political apprenticeship before taking their places as directors of the state.
Plato's Republic is an example for believers in aristocracy, planned society, equality for women, and state control over education and the arts.
It was the first utopia that offered radical solutions for the problems of human society.
After graduating from Plato's Academy in Athens, he founded a school of his own there.
He was more interested in the evidence of the senses than his teacher.
He was the greatest collector in antiquity.
His interests ranged from biology to poetry.
Plato's general idea of the existence of ideas was accepted by Aristotle, but he held that physical matter is also a part of reality and not to be despised.
He thought that Matter was the "stuff" of reality, though its shapes and purposes came from the Forms that Plato had set forth.
By logical thinking, people can gain knowledge of the purposes of things and of their interrelations, knowledge that will give meaning and guidance to their lives and bring them closer to God.
Logic is the key to truth and happiness.
He worked out rules for logical thinking that have been respected by philosophers for hundreds of years.
The study of society and government began with examining existing constitutions.
He didn't draw from a model organization that was suitable for all cities, but he recognized that there were differences in local conditions and classes of inhabitants.
When the rulers pursue their own interest alone, any one of these types becomes a perversion.
The "middle class" of citizens was favored by the philosopher.
The poor lack experience in directing others, while the rich are not used to obeying.
The middle class knows how to command and to obey, so they can be counted on to avoid political extremes.
According to his theory that all things have a purpose, he taught that every organ and creature should function according to its design.
The function of the eye is to see, the function of the ear is to hear, and the function of a human is to live like a human.
A balance of faculties of both body and mind is what this last calls for.
It is clear that people should be governed by reason rather than by their appetites and emotions.
This is a dif ficult question that cannot be answered by any rule.
He said that excellence in a particular activity is somewhere between extremes.
The beginnings of western civilization should not have a lack of nerve or an excess in battle.
He should strike a happy medium.
A work of sculpture or architecture should be judged by whether it can be improved by taking something away or by adding something to it.
The work is excellent if it can.
He warned that his advice wouldn't apply to things that are good in themselves.
Murder, theft, and lying are evil, but truth and beauty should be sought in the highest degree.
Through trial and self-criticism, each person should find a mean between extremes.
The Golden Mean is what this has been called.
The Greek ideals of excellence were not invented by Aristotle, but he did reflect and express them.
The products of Greek genius were observed everywhere around him.
Western drama, prose, history, and poetry are Greek in origin.
Each art form was supported by a minor goddess, or Muse, according to the Greeks.
Most people have at least one major epic, a long poem telling a story of great deeds and heroes in the national past.
Either way, the greatest epics become cherished possessions of the peoples of whom they originate--sources of national pride, of subjects for later poets, and even of moral guidance.
Homer is the father of the Greek epic.
They provided many plots, themes, and characters to later Greek writers.
Homer's authorship of the two epics is firmly established by tradition, but no one knows who he was.
It is thought that he was blind and lived in one of the Greek cities on the coast of Asia Minor around 800 b.c.
The ancient stories were combined into two great narrative poems by Homer, setting his stamp on them more than any other man before him.
After Homer had access to the new skill of alphabetic writing, his version became the standard, one which has lasted unchanged for thousands of years.
The setting of his poems is the battle between early Greeks and the defenders of Troy in Asia Minor, which took place in the 12th century b.c.
The king of Ithaca is the wily and brave Odysseus.
King Agamemnon, the commander of the Greeks, has deprived him of a beautiful slave, his prize in battle.
Neither man will give up.
The powerful Hector is the leader of the Trojans.
After his dearest friend, Patroclus, is slain, Achilles returns to the battle to seek vengeance and to avoid disaster.
With the help of the goddess, the Greek hero succeeds in killing Hector but takes pity on his father, Priam, and gives him the body for honorable burial.
Exploiting the richness and precision of the Greek language, Homer presents the human qualities of courage, pride, envy, sacrifice, and love with striking realism.
The gods are a part of the epic.
A typical Greek view of mortals and gods, morals and fate is sketched by Homer in the story of Achilles.
It was to be restated many times in classical literature, drama, and art.
The Greeks created both epic and lyric poetry.
The personal nature of this poetry distinguishes it.
In contrast to epic poetry, lyric poets express their own thoughts and feelings about life, love, patriotism, and even the pleasures of wine.
His poetry was as famous as his statesmanship.
His verse defends his record in politics.
He wrote that he freed the Athenians from slavery by welding right law with force.
The subject of individual happiness and how it is won and lost was one of the favorite subjects of Solon.
Every life is unpredictable and must be judged in its entirety.
Though she loved both men and women, her most erotic feelings seem to have been aroused by the beautiful girls who formed her circle of companions.
The accepted form of c hapter 2, the greek beginnings of western civilization male homosexuality, did not seem abnormal to the ancient Greeks.
Greek drama was acted out and had a tighter structure that gave it greater impact.
He thought that it gave the audience a sense of separation from the common destiny of themselves and others.
The ancient religious ceremonials were the root of Greek tragedy.
It began in the sixth century B.C.
It was customary for a group to sing about the gods and heroes.
When the leader of the chorus was allowed to step out from the group and talk to the chorus, drama was born.
By the beginning of the fifth century b.c., the choral dramas might have several individual characters, although no more than three actors plus the chorus took part at any one time.
The ancient ceremonial became a medium for expressing new ideas.
The connection with Dionysus faded as writers were allowed to choose whatever serious themes suited their purpose.
tragedy remained moral in purpose and character despite the religious origins being not forgotten.
The other form of Greek drama, comedy, grew from a different side of the Dionysiac tradition.
In his honor, there were somber dances and chants, as well as frenzied processions and frenzied revels.
Athenian comedy was born out of these celebrations.
The earliest comedies were crude slapstick performances.
The chief writer of comedy whose works have come down to us, used his plays to make fun of local politicians, poets, and philosophers who he disagreed with.
He usedicule as a weapon of criticism.
The warriors agree to stop fighting in exchange for an end to the strike.
During the Dionysiac festival season, comedies and tragedies were presented in open-air amphitheaters.
There was a theater on the slope of the Acropolis.
The rows of seats descended from the top of the hill to the orchestra.
The Greek actors wore masks that helped them project their voices.
The performances were colorful, with grand speeches, music, graceful dancing and singing, and rich costumes and headdresses.
The effect was similar to opera.
The author trained the cast and wrote the music.
The theater was built in the fourth century B.C.
During the three-day festival of Dionysus, dramatic performances began each morning and lasted until nightfall.
There was very little scenery and no curtain or lighting.
A prize of great honor was awarded to the playwright who was judged the best, usually on successive days.
Three of the greatest playwrights of Western history were Greek.
They all lived in one city, Athens, in the fifth century b.c.
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides wrote over 300 plays.
Aeschylus' plays transform suffering and death into inspiration and the will to live.
The measure of true tragedy is that.
The Greek play shows a hero of high rank, a great struggle, and intense suffering.
There is reason beneath the suffering, and justice triumphed in the end.
Aeschylus feels that the gods and moral law are hard but that one can face fate bravely.
The family crimes of the royal house of Atreus is the central theme of aes chylus.
King Agamemnon was murdered by his wife when he came back from the war.
All of them can justify their actions, but they are still guilty.
These crimes and the suffering they bring are punishment for violating the moral order.
In the final play of the trilogy, the murderer Orestes, son of Agamemnon, is protected from the terrible cycle of crime and punishment by Athena.
Orestes is restored to respectability after being transformed into the justice of the city-state.
The "most Greek" of the three playwrights is Sophocles, because he reflected the ideal of "nothing in excess".
He looked at the consequences of exaggerated pride.
The Delphic oracle of Apollo foretold that Oedipus could avoid his fate.
He tried to escape from the prophecy that he will kill his father and marry his mother.
The truth of his moral crimes is brought to light by his own searching.
He realized that his folly was punishment for the foulness of his actions.
The youngest of the great Greek tragedians, Euripides, had the deepest insight into human character.
He challenged the traditional religious and moral values of his time and was considered a radical.
He showed the other side of war and opposed slavery.
He pleaded for greater tolerance, equality, and decency, and he was sensitive to injustice, whether of the gods or mortals.
Herodotus was born in 485 b.c.
He traveled to various parts of the Persian Empire.
He visited Greek colonies in the Black Sea and southern Italy.
The Persian Wars ended in the triumph of Athens and its allies.
He decided to record the events that led up to the struggle.
The legends of poetry were accepted as true accounts of the past.
He wanted to separate fact from legend to write an account.
He warned his readers when he was passing along unreliable information, even though the sources he used were not all reliable.
He tells the story of the Persian Wars in a way that is sympathetic to both Persians and Greeks, and that presents it as a dramatic contest between slavery and freedom.
The writing of history was lifted to a higher critical level by the Athenians.
He wrote about the long and cruel war between Athens and Sparta that broke out soon after their victory over Persia.
He traveled a lot to gather information during the war.
His account has more depth and unity than that of Herodotus.
He insisted that history is made by human beings.
The knowledge gained from studying the past could be used as a guide to understanding the future.
He showed the reader the causes, motives, and consequences of the war.
His work is more than military history, it deals with the questions of democracy, imperialism, and the whole range of social relations.
The Greeks put their best efforts into public structures because they considered community activities to be more important than private affairs.
The temple represented a strong bond between religious and patriotic feelings.
The Greeks were not interested in private dwellings that were small and simple.
Plumbing and sanitary facilities were not present.
The most important buildings were usually made of wood.
Limestone and marble replaced timber in public structures.
The country's forests were dying out, which made this a natural development.
The Greeks used the post-andlintel method for supporting the roofs of their buildings, meaning that the horizontal members rested on vertical posts or columns.
A roof of considerable weight could be supported by a series of columns.
Egyptian architects demonstrated the effectiveness of this building method hundreds of years ago.
The religious center of a Greek colony, Posidonia, was formed by a group of shrines overlooking the sea not far south of Naples.
The temple was built in the sixth century b.c., when Greeks settled in southern Italy and Sicily.
It looks like an early Greek stone temple.
The proportions of the temple and the columns were changed over time.
A perfect balance of architectural elements was achieved in this shrine.
The Greeks developed two basic styles, Doric and Ionic.
The Corinthian order was similar to the Ionic except for the column capitals, which were decorated with stylized leaves of the acanthus plant.
The floor plan is easy to understand.
The interior is divided into two enclosures.
The treasury of Athens was contained in the smaller cella.
The gabled roof was supported by a wooden framework.
The design of the Parthenon was 450 b.c.
It still embodies the Greek ideal of the Golden Mean despite being ravaged by time and war.
It is a small structure, measuring 100 by 230 feet, but it was perfect for its purpose and position.
The city-state of Athens took its name from the virgin goddess of the sea, and that's why the Parthenon was built.
He was around 448 b.c.
From ancient times to the present day, the Parthenon is a model of classic dignity and beauty because of its combination of solidity and gracefulness.
The weathered marble now provides an attractive color, even though the paints have faded.
The design of the Parthenon is part of the wonder of it.
Straight lines are not good for avoiding an impression of stiffness.
A perfectly straight profile makes a column look too rigid.
They found that by adjusting the spacing between columns, they could make the structure look better.
It is testimony to their desire for excellence that the builders went to such pains to satisfy both engineering and aesthetic demands.
The Greeks' passion for beauty, interest in human forms, and strive for the ideal are reflected in their sculpture.
Hundreds of copies of Greek statues, produced in Roman times by Greek artisans, still survive, even though only a few originals have come down to us.
The beginnings of western civilization, or what we know of them, have served as models for Western sculptors through the centuries.
Greek statues show an Egyptian influence.
The Egyptians did not want to reproduce natural appearances in their figures.
The Greeks became dissatisfied with the representation they got and went for greater naturalism, movement, and grace in their figures.
The statues were carved in the fifth century b.c.
The most respected sculptor of Athens in the Age of Pericles was put in charge of the sculptures.
The main cella had a 35 feet tall statue of Athena carved from wood.
According to ancient descriptions, the original was decorated with ivory, gold, and jewels.
The carvings of the marble friezes and the marble band ran around the outside of the cella walls.
Various deities are seated on such statues.
Even in the fragments, the sense of placed in temples and the splendid proportion and the athlete into a personal "servant" form are visible.
The pose of the original bronze casting has been lost, but the figure statue with arms hanging at was so much admired that many marble copies were sides, fists clenched, and left foot made.
A Greek full self-control can be achieved through the nudity of the athlete.
The statue isn't an accurate picture innovation.
Greek sculptors tended to use a more natural and graceful style after 400 b.c.
Praxiteles was the leading developer of this new style.
The high point of Athens's religious year is when the horsemen ride to the Parthenon.
It was customary among ancient peoples to decorate temples with scenes of religious ceremonies in order to make sure that the deity would always be receiving worship.
The freedom and gracefulness of the newly developed Greek style of sculpture was brought to this tradition by the carvers of the frieze.
A photograph shows a marble copy of the statue that was admired in the ancient world.
Myron made the bronze original about 450 b.c.
This statue, which is the only surviving Greek statue that can be identified as a 100 b.c.
statue, may have originally been created by a famous master.
View flashcards and assignments made for the note
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms