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40.3 Other Endocrine Glands and Hormones -- Part 2
When the blood calcium level is high, there is a build up of calcium in the body.
The blood Ca2+ level returns to normal because Calcitonin promotes the absorption of Ca2+ by the bones.
PTH is released when the blood Ca2+ level is low.
PTH causes the bones to release Ca2+ and the kidneys to reabsorb it.
In fish and a few other animals, calcitonin appears to play a very important role in regulating calcium homeostasis, but in humans it appears to be less important.
There is no link between a deficiency of calcitonin and any specific disorder.
calcitonin is an FDA-approved drug for reducing bone loss in osteoporosis.
The release of calcium from the bones is stimulated by low blood calcium.
The kidneys' excretion of calcium is lessened by PTH.
The effects bring the blood calcium level back to normal.
The small size and hidden location of the four parathyroid glands caused them to be Page 755 in the past.
This condition causes a dramatic drop in the blood calcium level.
Nerve signals happen spontaneously and without rest.
Hyperparathyroidism can cause the formation of calcium stones.
The kidneys have the adrenal glands on top of them.
The anterior and posterior pituitary are functionally distinct from these portions.
The hypothalamus stimulates the parts of the adrenal glands that are stimulated by stress.
The salt and water balance, as well as secreting a small amount of male and female sex hormones, are regulated by the adrenal cortex.
When there is a "fight-or-flight" reaction, the sympathetic hypothalamus sends nerve impulses to many organs, including the adrenal medulla.
The neurological response to danger quickly dilates the pupils, speeds the heart, dilates the air passages, and reduces many non essential bodily functions.
The response to stress is continued by the hormones by increasing the cardiac rate and force of contraction.
These effects are usually short-lived.
The control of the hypothalamus and the adrenal cortex is what helps us respond to stress.
A rapid, but short-term, stress response can be provided by nervous stimulation.
The anterior pituitary causes the adrenal cortex to release hormones.
The stress response is provided by the adrenal cortex.
The hypothalamus produces a longer-term response to stress by stimulating the anterior pituitary, which in turn causes the adrenal cortex to release hormones.
It promotes the breakdown of muscle proteins to amino acids, which are taken up by the liver from the bloodstream.
The catabolism of the acids is promoted, and this saves the sugars.
The type of reaction that leads to the pain and swelling of joints in arthritis and bursitis is counteracted by glucocorticoids.
It reduces inflammation and is often used to treat these conditions.
The body's defense system can be suppressed by high levels of glucocorticoids in the blood.
Mineralocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Aldosterone helps regulate blood volume and blood pressure by targeting the kidneys.
The production of mineralocorticoids is not controlled by the anterior pituitary.
ANH can lower blood pressure by dilating smooth muscle.
A high blood volume causes the heart to make a hormone called ANH.
The kidneys excrete Na+ when ANH causes it.
The pressure and blood volume are back to normal.
A low blood pressure causes the kidneys to excrete renin.
Aldosterone causes the kidneys to reabsorb Na+, so that blood volume and pressure can return to normal.
In Section 36.2, we discovered that when the blood Na+) level is low, the kidneys produce reninangiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is changed to angiotensin II by lung capillaries.
The release of aldosterone is stimulated by angiotensin II.
The effect of this renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is to raise blood pressure in two ways.
An attack on the adrenal cortex by the immune system is the most common cause.
A variety of symptoms may occur, such as dehydration, weakness, weight loss, and low blood pressure, because the disease affects the secretion of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
Increased pigmentation of the skin can be caused by the presence of excessive but ineffective ACTH.
Light-skinned individuals are particularly affected by the bronzing of the skin.
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