The information in this chapter was in support of Big ideas.
It's possible for an individual to do all the things it needs to do to be successful, if it's behavior.
Animals evolved under strong evolutionary pressures.
The scrub jay is an indigenous bird in North America.
"Helper" scrub jays that don't have their own territory are often used by pairs to gather food and raise their offspring.
The transitional areas where forests meet well-vegetated open fields are where the gis prefer to live.
They are diggers, and they live and raise their children underground.
The tunnel can be up to 50 feet in length.
groundhogs retreat into their tunnel when they sense danger.
The worker honeybee dies when it is stung to protect the hive.
Altruistic people sacrifice themselves for the group.
Scientists don't fully understand how this genetic trait stays in the pool if someone dies.
People who share most of the same genes will be able to pass on the altruistic trait to their offspring.
They have an advantage over other honeybees that they can pass on to their offspring.
The alpha male is in charge of the behavior of all the other animals.
The alpha male is the only one who controls the other animals.
The most food, the best territory, and the chance to mate with all the females are all given to the alpha individual.
Aggressive behavior isgonistic.
There are a variety of threats to settle the disputes.
Habituation is the simplest form of learning.
If a student taps the side of a petri dish that has a hydra, the animal will shrink into a ball and become immobile.
The hydra will begin to move after several minutes of repeated tapping.
Salmon return to the stream where their lives began when they are ready to hatch.
Over the course of 1-2 days, female salmon lay hundreds of eggs that are fertilized by a male.
All of the adults die within a few days or weeks.
The fertilized eggs hatch, and the baby salmon migrate downstream to the ocean, where they live for years.
The salmon return to their place of origin when the time is right to start reproducing.
In one experiment, salmon eggs were randomly separated into two groups.
Group A's eggs were left in the stream.
Group B's eggs were moved to a nearby hatchery.
Group A returned to the stream where they hatched as adults.
Group B went back to the hatchery.
The salmon were able to navigate to the place where they were fry using information stored in their brains.
The salmon were able to navigate to the place where they were born using information stored in their brains.
The other salmon were led by a dominant female to locate the site where they were fry.
The others were led to the site by a dominant female.
Peter Berthold has been studying migratory patterns in birds for more than 30 years.
Here is a description of one of his studies with birds.
Three sets of birds were used for the study.
In the autumn, all three sets of birds were placed into large glass-covered, funnel-shaped cages lined with carbon-coated paper.
When the funneled cages were placed outdoors at night, the birds made marks with their beaks on the paper that indicated in which direction they were trying to fly.
Adult birds captured in Britain and their lab-raised offspring tried to migrate to the west.
The young birds tried to migrate to the southwest from southern Germany.
Belding's ground squirrels were used in a study on kin selection and altruistic behavior.
After about a month of being nursed, pups are free to move away from their birthplace.
An adult female Belding's ground squirrel stands up on her hind feet to sound alarm calls when a predator is nearby.
Squirrels try to escape after hearing the warning call.
The whistling adult female clearly puts herself in danger if the young sends out an alarm.
The distance in meters that females and males move from their birthplace was compared.
The best graph to show kin selection by females is the one you choose.
Ivan Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.
An animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then avoids it.
The best lab studies in operant conditioning were done by B. F. Skinner.
A FAP is a sequence of behaviors that are usually carried out once initiated.
Tinbergen is associated with FAPs.
They thought he was their mother.
Choice B explains them well.
Individual animals sacrifice themselves for the well-being of the entire group or population.
Scientists think that it increases the overall fitness of the group.
altruistic individuals sacrifice themselves for others who have similar genes and will pass those genes onto the next generation Genetic drift is not relevant to this question because of an accidental change in a population.
Choices C and D don't accurately describe this behavior and how it fits into the theory of natural selection.
Complex behaviors in other animals are innate.
According to the question, there are no learning or teaching opportunities when there are solitary animals.
The animal wouldn't survive the learning process if it learned to dig a tunnel by trial and error.
Since groundhogs are solitary animals, choices B and C are incorrect.
Choice D is not consistent with what is said in the question.
Choice A is not correct because there are no consequences for being needed.
The honeybee dies after stinging an animal.
One honeybee cannot teach another how to die in order to save the group.
He benefits from the fact that his genes are the only ones that get passed down.
Agonistic behavior is meant to be cautious.
Territoriality is described by Choice C.
The hydra would die if it stopped feeding.
altruistic behavior may save kin that are carrying genes similar to those in the individual that sacrificed itself
Both groups of salmon swam back to where they hatched.
Choice D is incorrect because there is no aggressive behavior described in the question.
The blackcaps' ability to navigate must have been inborn.
Females are staying close to their relatives because when they send out an alarm and risk their lives, they are doing it for close relatives.