ChAPTER 4 -- Part 1: Unification and the Consolidation
The artifacts were found among the bricks taken from the mounds.
When Cunningham was appointed head of the Indian Archeological Survey, he ordered the fullscale excavation of what was soon recognized as one of the earliest and most highly developed of all ancient human civilization.
The evidence shows that Harappan civilization developed rapidly in the 3rd millennium b.c.e.
It was very different from the village cultures that preceded it.
The capital cities of the civilization were Harappa, in the north, and Mohenjo Daro, 400 miles to the south.
The way in which a complex and populous society developed in ancient China has been reconstructed using archeological excavations in east Asia.
Chinese civilization had its beginnings along a river.
South of a great bend in the Huang he or Yellow river, large farming communities were often protected by high walls of stamped earth.
As Harappan civilization was declining in India in the mid-2nd millennium b.c.e., the nomadic dynasty of the Shang was laying the basis of a kingdom that was powerful enough to demand tribute and exert some degree of control over large numbers of people.
The foundations for the longest lived, continuous civilization ever developed were provided by the combination of military prowess and irrigation networks.
Painstaking archeological work at ancient Chinese sites led to the discovery of a writing system that was initially as puzzling as that found on the seals.
The first civilizations that developed in south Asia and China will be traced in this chapter.
The Harappan civilization spread across Pakistan and a part of northwest India.
The core areas and institutions of Chinese civilization evolved far to the east.
They were ruled by neighboring pastoral peoples in the early and formulative centuries.
The emergence of a distinct Chinese ethno linguistic population that would build the great empires and sophisticated sociocultural system that have supported 20 percent of humanity for most of recorded history was the result of the cohabitation and often intermarriage among these herding peoples and the agrarian peoples of the Shang-Zhou
The collapse of Harappan civilization was similar to that of the Shang culture.
The ruins of the cities and towns of the Harappan civilization were excavated in the 19th century.
The different trajectory of early civilization in India and China differ from the patterns in the Middle East and North Africa discussed in Chapter 2.
As in the Fertile Crescent, the rapidly running mountain streams branched out environmental change, natural calamities, and successive into seven great rivers, of which six remain today.
The Indus River runs for hundreds of miles to the southwest and empties into the Arabian Sea.
The streams in the Himalayas are fed by monsoon rains.
There were rain clouds in the 2nd millennium b.c.e.
They release their life-giving waters across the lowlands to the mountains.
The monsoons that blow toward central Asia from the sea provide a critical source of water for the plains and valleys before they reach the mountains.
The site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics can be found in the plains of the mountains.
During the summer season, winds crossing the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia bring rains.
Over time, the characters on the Chinese oracle bones became written Chinese.
The first civilization in India was created by the melting snow and monsoon rains of the Indus river system.
The lower plains were different in the 3rd millennium b.c.e.
The region is now arid and desolate.
It was green and forested in the past.
There were a lot of game and pasturage animals.
Before the first settlements associated with the Harappan complex appeared, the plains were dotted with farm settlements.
The pre-Harappan peoples had developed sophisticated agricultural implements and crop-growing techniques.
A major source of food was N.
The layout and construction of Harappa and other urban centers were remarkably similar to those hundreds of miles away.
It is half a mile from north to south.
The Aryan invasions center on times of peace, despite the fact that South and Asia's first civilization was located in the northwest.
The Dravidian civilization in the Deccan and Tamilland may have been a palace because of the large building migrations that took place after the citadel at from southwest Asia.
Many small rooms may have housed priests or sheltered bathers as a result of the cloister surrounding the elaborately decorated bath at Mohenjo Daro.
Grain was stored for ceremonial purposes, times of shortage, and possibly the regulation of grain production and sale prices, according to large granaries near each of the citadels.
The lanes and paths in the city's quarters were narrow and twisting, despite the main avenues being straight and 30 feet wide.
At the height of Harappan civilization, there must have been a lot of people in these areas.
Each of the houses had a courtyard surrounded by rooms for sleeping, cooking, and receiving visitors, and they all had the same layout.
A long passageway from the street to the houses may indicate a concern for security.
Harappans, like many other peoples in the world, were washed standing up by pouring jugs of water over their bodies in the bathing area of each home.
Many houses had a toilet that was connected by a drainage pipe to the city's sewage system, which was among the best in the ancient world.
The great cities and many towns of the Harappan complex were supported by an advanced agricultural system based on wheat, peas, and possibly rice.
Cotton was cultivated and many animals were reared.