Political developments reflected a lot of different things.
This was a crucial time for state building in areas like Japan, Russia, and West Africa.
This was also a period of warfare.
Conflict occurred in units like western europe or sub-Saharan Africa.
The Arab military burst in the centuries after 600 and then the great Mongol conquests.
The european crossbow was one of the technological innovations that accompanied warfare.
The most well-known printed work is a Buddhist prayer.
The scroll is over 16 feet long and contains a series of printed pages.
In 1907, it was found in the dunhuang Caves, in the northwestern province of gansu.
The major societies of Afro-eurasia reacted to the key forces of the age, including the expansion of one or more of the world religions, but of course they reacted diversely.
There were different rates of change.
Some societies had more continuity with earlier traditions than others.
It is important to remember the continuing divisions in world geography during the post classical period.
A new world history period was defined by European ventures in trade and exploration.
There were two big changes in world history between 1450 and 1750.
A number of new empires came into being, replacing smaller political units that were characteristic of the preceding postclassical period.
It is the first time in world history that European countries have acquired overseas empires.
There were new landbased empires in Asia and eastern Europe.
The new Mughal empire ruled much of the indian subcontinent, while the Russian and Ottoman empires extended over both European and Asian territory.
Trade routes were the second big change.
The indian Ocean sea routes remained significant, despite the fact that oceangoing routes across the Pacific and the Atlantic had become more important.
For the first time, the Americas and Pacific Oceania were caught up in global exchanges, with results for the rest of the world as well.
Change is never complete.
Political features persisted even as world geography shifted.
Some trade routes remained the same from the past.
The Early Modern period had three big concepts.
Contacts with the Americas ushered in a series of important biological exchanges.
Major population shifts took place in many different parts of the world.
The transregional trade network became global.
Major impact on economies from China to Africa to the Americas can be seen with increased levels of trade.
Naval contacts were transformed with the use of ships' cannon, as shipping technology improved once again.
The various new empires formed because of the use of guns.
Several European powers staked claims in the Americas, as well as in certain coastal regions and island groups in Asia.
The establishment of Atlantic slavery was one of the important social changes of the Early Modern period.
Exploitation of labor increased in many societies because of new pressures to produce for global trade and population changes.
There were no global patterns for gender relations.
The Early Modern period did not experience systematic cultural change.
The Early Modern period was different from the postclassical period that preceded it.
The revival of empire building was the first.
Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine empire, was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
The Ottomans extended their rule over most Byzantine territories and beyond, putting a Muslim power in charge of one of the great Christian cities and territories of the past.
Christian leaders in other parts of the world turned to new activities to compensate for the loss of territory.
European mariners began to use compasses and other navigation devices, first introduced by the Chinese and international trade increased, for the first time including the Arabs.
Europeans learned how to design ships.
The invention of guns and gunpowder by the Chinese was one of the most important new military technology.
Europeans and others adapted the process.
Proto-globalization in this greater shipping capacity helped set this process in motion, as it involved intense and varied interactions among Larger, sturdier ships, armed with cannon and featuring regions that help shape human lives.
There are changes to the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
The postclassical period saw the emergence of world trade military technologies in establishing their new overseas empires, despite Europeans exercising disproportion rated proto-globalization from the transcontinental network that ate dominance over these routes.
All major parts of the world, not just the three continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe, were included in commerce.