9 -- Part 4: The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties
The equation for the second-row elements is in agreement with the equation for the energy levels of a one-electron species at the beginning of the example.
The general form of equation (9.10) is correct for the third-row series, but the agreement between the numerical constants is not as good.
We assumed perfect screening by the core electrons, which ignores the different characteristics of the electrons in the inner core.
The screening and penetration of the electrons in the core can't be accounted for with our simple model because of the intricate motions of the electrons in the core.
Francium 1Z is an extremely rare radioactive element formed when actinium 1Z is released.
Francium can be found in natural minerals, but only a small amount can be found in the top 1 km of Earth's crust.
Some of francium's properties can be inferred from its position in the periodic table.
Estimate the melting point, density, and atomic radius.
Discuss the likelihood that element 168, should it ever be synthesised in sufficient quantity, would be a "noble liquid" at 298 K and 1 bar.
Prepare graphs of boiling point and melting point.
The data from Figure 9-1 and equation (9.1) can be used to estimate the elements: Al, 2.699; Ar, 0.0018; As, 5.778; Br, mate the density of the recently discovered element 3.100.
Lanthanum 1Z was a newly dis Na, 0.968 and S, 2.069.
The temperatures are in degrees Celsius.
The densities for the elements in their standard states are as follows: Al, 660; Ar, -189; Be, 1278; B, 2300; C, ter, and Li, 179.
The noble is uniformly isoelectronic with increasing atomic number.
The mass of individual atoms can be determined with great precision, but there is a lot of uncer that goes into it.
This is the case for all the isoelectronic species in the text.
The Na+ ion and Ne atom are electronic.
When the Li atoms convert to Na+, the energy is given off.
495.8 kJ>mol is a stable compound containing the Li- ion.
The elements are Al, Si, S, and Cl.
The elements should be placed in order of increasing electron produced per joule of energy absorbed by a sample of affinity.
The elements are Na, Mg, O, and P.
The elements should be placed in order of increasing the ioniza.
In order to increase elec, place the elements in order.
You can use electron affinities listed in ability.
What species would you expect to low?
In order to increase that of Ca but less than that of Cs polarizability, arrange the following species.
The column on the right is the most appropriate numbered item for the following groups of elements.
Four atoms and/or ions are sketched below in which group of Mendeleev's table dances with their relative atomic and/or ionic radii.
Indium oxide, which is 82.5% In ization energy for Li, and express the result in by mass, was thought to be InO.
If this were the case, kJ>mol.
The energies of Li, Be+, B2+, and C3+ are shown.
Two elements, A and B, have the same atom.
The missing data for these elements should be filled in.
The data indicated that the specific heat was 0.0276 cal g-1 degC-1.
The entries for each element are listed in alphabetical order.
Discuss the basis of uncertainties.
The basic physical constants and other data from the appendices show that the eV>atom is 96.49 kJ mol-1.
The following table has the metal work function.
Evaluate the electron affinity of F and compare it to the experimental value.
Estimate the electron affinities of O and N.
Look at your results in terms of penetration and screening.
There is a relationship on page 379.
The atoms absorb quanta with the stant.
The designated electron is protected by all the other electrons in the ns group.
A method for estimating electron affinities is to group 1 elements (including H), and show that the Zeff values for atoms and ion that contain ionization energies observed for this group are the same number of electrons as the negative ion accounted for.
Do not want to.
Evaluate Zeff for a valence electron in the elements Li through Ne, and use the results to explain the observed trend in first ionization energies for the elements.
Z is usually more than Z.
The first two Zeff1Na2 6 Zeff1Mg2 7 Zeff1Al2 6 Zeff1P2 are electron configurations.
A nitrogen atom in the ground state has more energy than the first one.
For an electron in a 2s orbital, Zeff is greater than Na.
The same Zeff is used for the 2p and 2s orbitals.
Atomic number is the first ionization energy of Si, P, S, and Cl.
Which element is most likely to have this trend?
Adding an electron to the periodic table in terms of their atomic mass is the reason.
The periodic law and the metallic character should be decreased by arranging the following elements: Sc, Fe, Rb, O, Ca, F, Te.