ChAPTER 11 -- Part 4: The First Global Civilization: The Rise
He was given a hero's welcome in Medina.
He settled the bedouin clans of the town's quarrels with a warm reception.
His wisdom and skill as a political leader won him new followers, who joined those who had accompanied him from Mecca as the core believers of the new faith.
The Umayyad notables saw Muhammad as a greater threat because of his successes.
Mecca's competitor, Medina, was strengthened by his leadership as he preached a faith that rivaled their own.
Meccan caravans were the subject of Muslim raids.
The Quraysh launched a series of attacks on Muhammad and his followers in order to end the threats.
Several battles were led by these attacks.
Muhammad was a leader and a fighter.
The Muslims were granted permission to visit the shrine at Ka'ba in Mecca during the season of truce thanks to a treaty with the Quraysh.
More than 10,000 converts accompanied Muhammad on his triumphant return to his hometown in 622.
Muhammad gradually won over the Umayyads and most of the other inhabitants of Mecca to the new faith after prov ing the power of Al ah.
Although Islam was soon to become one of the great world religions, the beliefs and practices of the prophet Muhammad were only adopted by the Arab town dwellers and bedouins who had grown up with him.
Early Christianity focused on Jewish converts.
The new religion preached by Muhammad had a lot to offer the people of Arabia.
It gave them a form of monotheism that did not belong to any single tribe.
The equal of the monotheistic faiths held by the Christians and Jews, who lived in the midst of the bedouin tribes, was provided by it.
The monotheism preached by Muhammad was even more uncompromising than the one preached by the Christians because it allowed no interaction between the individual and God.
There were no saints or angels, but God was one.
There were no priests in the Christian or Jewish sense of the term.
The new religion created a single source of authority and discipline.
The conquerors and rulers of the Middle Eastern world were transformed from vassals, borderland warriors, or contemptible "savages" of the desert waste.
The Postclassical Period, 600-1450: New Faith and New Commerce and generous to their dependents, including slaves.
He did not allow the rich to exploit the poor through high rents or interest rates.
The revelations of the Qur'an and the teachings of the prophet were incorporated into an exten sive body of law that regulated all aspects of the lives of the Muslim faithful.
They lived in a way that would prepare them for the Last Judgment, which in Islam, as in Christianity, would determine their fate in eternity.
A strict but socially minded body of law and a compassionate God set impressive standards for the social interaction between followers of a new faith.
The same attributes that won the people of Arabia's support for Islam were present in some of these beliefs.
Islam's potential as a world religion was enhanced by the fact that most of the attributes of Islam were to some degree antici pated by the other Semitic religions, particularly Judaism and Christianity, which Muhammad had contact with for much of his life.
He accepted the validity of the earlier divine revelations that gave rise to the Jewish and Christian faiths.
He said that the revelations he had received were refinements of earlier ones and that they were the final instructions for human behavior and worship.
Muslims from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the holy sites of Arabia every year.
Pilgrims at Mecca and Medina perform important religious rituals for all who can afford them.
There was no injunction at the Ka'ba.
After Muhammad's death, many of the bedouin tribes that had converted to Islam stopped following the new faith.
The community was able to find new leaders who directed the Muslim faithful and began a series of campaigns to force those who had abandoned Islam to return to the fold.
Muslim military commanders began to mount serious north Africa after they united most sequence of stunning conquests throughout the Middle East and of Arabia under the Islamic banner.
The conquests of Mesopotamia, north Africa, and Persia were the result of the courage, military prowess, and religious zeal of the warriors of Islam.
The empire built from these conquests was Arab.
The Umayyads and other prominent clans ruled most of it.
The groups did not want to convert the subject populations to the new religion.
The leadership crisis brought on by Muhammad's death was compounded by the fact that he had not appointed a successor or established a procedure by which a new leader would be chosen.
The Muslim community was divided on who should succeed him.
There was a need for a strong leader who could hold the Islamic community together.
A deadlock between the clans was likely to be fatal to the community because of enemies on all sides.