Women across Europe were allowed to work as botanical and zoological illustrators.
They were very much involved in informal scientific communities, attending salon and participating in scientific experiments.
Until the late 18th century, the scientific revolution had little impact on the lives of the people.
It was an intellectual revolution.
It had the greatest impact on how people thought.
There is a question about the role of religion in the development of science.
The scientific revolution was definitely in progress when the Western religious authorities opposed the Copernican system.
Italian scientists played a crucial role in scientific progress right up to the trial of Galileo, and the Catholic Church was initially less hostile than Protestant and Jewish religious leaders.
The Netherlands,Denmark, and England were included.
Out of a rich intellectual and cultural movement mix, this worldview grew.
The core of Enlightenment thinking is the use of reason, the scientific teenth century that introduced new ways of thinking based on the method, and a belief in both the possibility and desirability of human progress.
1690-1718 gained strength gradually and did not reach maturity until about 1750.
Talented writ ers of that generation popularized hard to understand scientific achievements.
The new generation believes that the human mind can make progress.
Sin and salvation were the focus of Medieval and Reformation thinkers.
The inspiration for the Renaissance's emphasis on worldly matters came from the classical past.
Enlightenment thinkers believed that their era had gone far beyond antiquity and that fresh intellectual progress was possible.
The Eu ropeans of the late 17th century began to question long-standing religious practices as a result of the excitement of the scientific revolution.
Others wondered if religious truth could ever be known with absolute certainty.
Pierre Bayle was the most famous of these skeptics.
Demonstrating that human beliefs were often mistaken, he concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond doubt, a view known as skepticism.
The early Enlightenment movement was participated in by some Jewish scholars.
The mind and body are connected in a single substance and that God and nature are both names for the same thing, according to the philosophy of the pher Baruch Spinoza.
He imagined a universe where good and evil were relative values.
Few of Spinoza's radical writings were published during his lifetime, but he is now considered to be one of the most original thinkers of the early Enlightenment.
Locke said that all ideas are derived from experience.
The human mind at birth is a blank slate, on which the individual's understanding and beliefs are written.
For good or for evil, education and social institutions determine human development.
The rapidly growing literature about non- European lands and cultures was a cause of questioning.
Europeans were learning that the peoples of the world had very different beliefs and customs.
Many examples of cultural differences were discussed in travel accounts.
They began to look at truth and morality in a different way.
By the time Louis XIV died in 1715, many of the ideas that would coalesce into the new worldview had been assembled.
Christian Europe was very attached to its political and social structures.
Many of the new ideas had been embraced by a large portion of western Europe's educated elite.
A group of French to appeal to the public and get around the censors produced works intellectuals who used satire and double meanings to spread their message.
The baron de Montesquieu pioneered this ap- in the Age of Enlightenment.
Two Persian travelers, Usbek and Rica, wrote letters to Montesquieu in order to criticize European customs and beliefs.
Montesquieu was not a democrat and he did not question the sovereignty of the French monarch.
An actor performs the first reading of a new play by Voltaire in a painting from 1755.
There is a bust statue of Voltaire.
The pen name of Francois-Marie Arouet was Voltaire.
He was arrested on two occasions for insulting noblemen.
In order to avoid a prison term in France, Voltaire moved to England for three years.
Gabriel e-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil was a gifted woman from the high aristocracy.
In order to become his long-time compan ion, Voltaire was invited to live with Madame du Chatelet and her husband.