President Kennedy's civil rights were blocked by southern Democrats in the House of Representatives.
African American leaders took a bold step after the standoff.
When you looked at the crowd, you didn't see blacks or whites.
The Lincoln Memorial is where Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous speech.
Civil rights activists gave speeches and prominent entertainers sang protest songs for almost six hours.
There was something remarkable that happened.
Martin Luther King Jr. came to the podium on the steps of the Lincoln Memo rial.
King set aside his prepared remarks and delivered an extraordinary sermon in the form of a speech, using righteousness and pas sion to inspire his followers to action.
There was a deafening applause as King finished.
"I have never been prouder to be a Negro than I am now," said Robinson.
President Kennedy was watching TV at the White House, just a mile away, as he tried to convince organizers to call off the march.
King's dream was just that, a dream deferred.
Four young girls were killed by a bomb in a black church eighteen days later.
The civil rights movement depended on the courts as much as it did on the leaders.
Federal judges continued to force states and localities to integrate.
The U.S. Supreme Court made landmark decisions under Chief Justice Earl Warren.
The civil rights movement continued to grow.
In the Lower South, racism remained entrenched.
White officials kept African Americans from voting by charging them poll taxes, forcing them to take difficult literacy tests, and intimidating them through lynchings.
Robert "Bob" Moses, a black New Yorker who had resigned from the SCLC to head the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Mississippi, decided it would take an army to force the state to give voting rights to black people.
He recruited black and white volunteers who would live with African Americans in rural areas and teach them how to vote.
Many of the recruits for Freedom Summer were college students who were ide alistic.
Mississippi's white leaders prepared for a communist invasion by doubling the state police force.
A volunteer from Brooklyn, New York, instructs young black students on the arts, African American history, and civil rights at a freedom school as part of the "Mississippi Summer Project" in August 1964.
In June, the volunteer activists met at an Ohio college to learn about southern racial history, civil disobedience, and the likely abuses they would suffer.
Several people who were afraid of going to Mississippi went home on the final evening of training.
The volunteers boarded buses and headed south.
Thousands of Mississippi children were taught math, writing, and history in freedom schools.
They taught black adults about voter registration.
During Freedom Summer, Fannie Lou Hamer worked with the SNCC volunteers.
She spent most of her life working on cotton plantations.
During the Freedom Summer of 1963, she led gatherings of volunteers in freedom songs and excelled as a lay preacher.
She said that God was not pleased with the killings and brutality.
The Negro children in Mississippi are suffering from malnutrition and God is not happy about it.
We have to go raggedy each day.
The Ku Klux Klan, local police, and other white racists harassed, arrested, and assault many of the volun teers.
The worst incident occurred two days after the Civil Rights Act was approved, when three young SNCC workers disappeared after going to investigate the burning of an African American church.
They were murdered by Klan members.
The bodies of eight black men were dumped in rivers and through a riot zone in Chicago in 1966 while young men held a Confederate flag and swamps.
Black activists began to question Martin Luther King's strategy.
It was not limited to the South.
Many young blacks were losing faith in the strategy of Christian nonviolence, as 70 percent of the nation's African Americans were living in rundown urban areas by the mid- 1960s.
Inner- city poverty and frustration was crying out for its own social justice movement.
On August 11, 1965, Watts, the largest black neighborhood in Los Angeles, exploded in rioting and looting that left 34 dead, almost 4,000 in jail, and widespread property damage.
The summer of 1966 saw riots in dozens of other cities.
Black power began to compete with the philosophy of Martin Luther King and the SCLC.
The home of his father, a Baptist minister, and his mother, a West Indian, was burned to the ground by white racists after they supported Marcus Garvey's crusade for black nationalism in the 1920s.
Malcolm's father was killed by white supremacists.
Malcolm's mother was institutionalized for the rest of her life after she suffered a breakdown.
After being kicked out of school in the ninth grade, Malcolm moved from Detroit to New York City to Boston.
Detroit Red, as he is known, had become a thief, drug dealer, and pimp by the time he was nineteen.
He was in Massachusetts prisons for seven years and joined the Nation of Islam.
The organization had nothing to do with Islam and everything to do with its domineering leader.
Muhammad championed black nationalism, self- respect, and self- discipline, and dismissed whites as devils.
After leaving prison, Malcolm Little changed his name to Malcolm X and became a NOI minister famous for his speeches attacking white racism and black powerlessness.
Thousands of mostly urban blacks joined the Nation of Islam because of his speeches.
The inner city African American working poor were frustrated by Malcolm X.
The death of the Black Power Elijah Muhammad was fatal.
Malcolm X was killed in New York.
Black militancy did not end with Malcolm X.
"Black power" became a cry for young people.
Whites were ousted from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee when it was headed byStokely Carmichael.
After seeing fellow volunteers killed and being beaten by whites, Carmichael rejected the philosophy of the civil rights movement.
The young black underclass heard the rage of the firebrands.
The Black Panther Party for Self Defense was founded in 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey P.Newton.
Community workers in a federal anti- poverty program wereNewton and Seale.
The BPP was formed after Matthew Johnson was killed by San Francisco police.
The release of all "black men" from prison, full employment for African Americans, and decent housing were all called for by the BPP.
Black panthers wore black berets, leather coats, and sunglasses and were armed with rifles and shotguns and with a clenched fist black power salute.
"We don't believe in passive and non-violent tactics," he said.
They haven't done anything for us black people.
In the inner cities of America, they are bankrupt.
The police in our communities are not there to protect us.
While addressing the pressing needs of their inner- city neighborhoods, the Black Panther intended to "police the police" in their communities.
They wanted to be self- governing.
Free Breakfast for Children programs, job training programs, and community health clinics were created.
New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, and Seattle are some of the cities where the Black Panther chapters emerged.
The black panthers had a right to defend themselves from police brutality.
A gun battle with police resulted in an officer being shot and killed.
Nine police officers and ten black panthers were killed in gunfights.
He organized a program to undermine the Black Panther party in order to meet the threat of black nationalist hate groups.
Drug abuse, infighting, and the efforts of the FBI destroyed the Black panthers by 1982.
The black panthers infused the civil rights movement with powerful insights and constructive beliefs for all their violent and self destructive behavior.
The necessary first step for African Americans to seek true equality was to learn to love and protect each other, regardless of age, gender, or sexual preference.
Audre Lorde, a powerful New York writer, the child of West Indian grants who described herself as a black lesbian feminist, mother, warrior, and poet, credited the Black Panthers with helping to expand the civil rights movement to include other "disenfranchised" groups.
To create a truly powerful movement for social change, it is necessary to link organizations that speak to different groups.
The role of female panthers was to support black men.
The majority of black panthers were women.
The women who were drawn to the Black Panther Party were all feminists.
Men were told to treat women as equals in 1969 by the Black Panther Party newspaper.
A graduate of the University of California at Los Angeles, Davis was a radical feminist who was aligned with SNCC, the Black Pan thers, and the Communist Party.
Davis was an activist for an array of causes.
She supported gay/lesbian rights and other social justice movements.
She declared that she was no longer accepting the things she couldn't change.
Activists raised awareness and appreciation of African American history by issuing a black power salute outside of a San Francisco school.
The Black Power movement attracted a small group of African Americans.
It forced Martin Luther King and others to shift the focus of the civil rights movement from the rural South to the inner city.
The war in Vietnam stole funds from federal programs for the poor and black soldiers were dying in disproportionate numbers in Southeast Asia, as he and others pointed out.
African Americans were motivated to push for black studies programs in schools and colleges by the Black Power movement.
The white Texan who succeeded John F. Kennedy in the White House was an unlikely source of federal support for civil rights.
Lyndon B. John took the oath of office on the plane that brought Kennedy's body back to Washington.
During his twenty-six years in Washington, Johnson rose to be one of the most powerful Democratic leaders in the Senate.
This legislative magician was the first southern president.
It was not easy for Johnson to become president.
He had a hardscrabble background and the Kennedy people hated him.
Johnson hated the Kennedys.
Less than ninety minutes after John Kennedy's death, Lyndon Johnson took the presidential oath aboard Air Force One between his wife, Lady Bird, and Kennedy's widow, Carolyn.
Johnson was one of the most complex men to occupy the White House.
Johnson's story was similar to Kennedy's.
He worked his way out of rural Texas poverty during the Great Depression and became one of the Senate's dominant figures.
His successes and failures were shaped by his personality.
His ego was as big as his ambition.
He insisted that he always be the center of attention.
He referred to his Vietnam policy, his Security Council, his Cabinet, his legislation, and his boys fighting in Southeast Asia at press conferences.
Johnson was a crude idealist and brutal optimist who took all criticism personally.
In his view, people were either with him or against him, and he was impatient with anyone who dissented or deviated from his agenda.
Johnson was believed to have suffered from a number of mental disorders.
He was known for his dramatic mood swings and coarse behavior.
He told the staff that there were only two types at the White House.
There are elephants and pissants.
Johnson wanted to be recognized as a transformational leader.
He had a weakness for attractive women.
Johnson wanted to be the greatest American president because he did the most good for the most people.
Those who thought he was a traditional southern conservative didn't appreciate his genuine compassion for the poor and his embrace of civil rights.
"I'm going to be the best friend the Negro has ever had," Johnson said.
His desire to bring the South into the mainstream of American life was one of the reasons why he was committed to civil rights.
He started teaching at an elementary school that served Mexican American children.
Lyndon Johnson was better at moving legislation through Congress than any other president.
In the aftermath of Kennedy's death, he took advantage of the public's support to push through tax reductions and civil rights legislation.