A document discovered in western China shows how the Sogdians linked the ends of Afro-Eurasia.
During the upheaval following the fall of the Han dynasty, a Sogdian merchant chief wrote a letter from China to his partner in Samarkand.
The state of civil war was made more violent by invading barbarian armies.
He describes the traders' attitude as usual.
The letter did not reach Samarkand.
Several Sogdian letters were found in a mailbag in one of the guard posts of the Great Wall of China.
Three years have passed since a Sogdian came from China.
I might write to you about the Sogdians who went inside, how they did, and which countries they reached.
They say that the last emperor fled from the city because of the famine and fire and the palace was destroyed.
We don't know if the remaining Chinese were able to expel the Huns from Chany'an, or if they took the country beyond.
Whoever lives in the region from Ji[ncheng] up to Dunhuang, they only survive as long as the.
I sent another man four years ago.
The caravan left Guzang.
The letter suggests that cloth is in high demand in northern China.
The Buddhas sat at the foothil of the Great Wal to mark the eastern location of the Silk Road.
Five huge Buddhas carved from cliffs in Yungang were found on the eastern end of the land.
Carefully packed for the long trek on a camel car, the Buddhas of avans, goods displaying Persian motifs--such as the legendary gang sat in postures of meditation-- stood tall with royal majesty.
Buddhist deities and patrons are sent around the Buddhas and mythical simurgh bird, which is a massive winged creature in the over fifty caves sheltered more than 50,000 statues.
Travelers were welcomed to the ies by the Yungang Buddhas, who rode side by side with Roman glass from the Mediterranean.
Along with Sasanian silver coins and gold pieces that were produced in China and marked the eastern end of Constantinople, these exotic products found eager buyers as far as the Asian Silk Road system.
By now, religious ideas were creating world empires of the mind, and the two Buddhas that were placed more than 2,500 miles apart are a reminder.
Stable political systems did not affect the flow of ideas.
They had more reach than the ponder commodities.
The Han Empire made China more open to the cultures of its far away.
The Roman Empire hewn from the stone face of the cliff during the fourth had done in the west, but the kings of its kingdom allowed two giant statues of the Buddha, 121 and 180 feet in height, commercial and cultural exchange.
The Gupta territory was found by travelers to be the entire northern.
The ancient Brahmanic Vedic religion lived there.
They preferred to focus on one form of each of the gods.
Women, especially widows, kept a small idol of Krishna in the home.
It attracted Hindus of all social levels, while the body Brahmans turned their attention to rural India and refashioned mythology to bring it in line with rural life and heavenly order.
Kalidasa, a pro became vegetarian, forsaking the animal sacrifice that had a poet and playwright in it.
In his and others' hands, what used to be called lyricfied themselves with agrarian culture.
Their new rituals were dramas and narrative poems written to provide entertainment linked to self-sacrifice--denying themselves meat rather than now served as collective memories of the past and underscored offering up slaughtered animals to the gods, as they had done religious precepts of ideal behavior.
The poets were praised as models for kings and their subjects.
Vishnu was the most popular of the deities.
He was thought to have revealed himself to the world in various guises.
The final battle of the two warring confederations of the Vedic tribes is a central part of this epic.
The best warrior of one of these confederations is unwilling to fight against his enemies because many of them are his cousins.
Krishna commanded him to slay his enemies, even those related to him, at a crucial moment on the battlefield.
The warrior caste that has been put on earth to govern and fight against the community's enemies is called the Kshatriyas.
The episode is small in the early version of the story.
The epics were rendered in classical Sanskrit because they were intended to become part of the reli Spreading along the Silk Road.
The main character, Sakuntala, could establish a code of laws and an overarching admin who was portrayed as a shy girl who had been adopted by a forest holy istration.
What emerged to unify South and even large parts man but who had neglected her religious duties, was made to live out her life in great misery in Southeast Asia.
The moral of Kalidasa's story was based on Hindu spiritual beliefs that misfortune comes from failing language.
This cultural synthesizer has been called to follow religious rules.
Sanskrit was carried far and wide and meant that it did not achieve the universal successes or it stepped beyond religious scriptures and became the public ambitions of Christianity and Buddhism.
The ideals of royal power and responsibility were expressed by kings and emperors.
Important moments in the language were recorded by poets.
Although local languages were retained, two main schools of Buddhism gained universal features.
The kings used to deliver their speeches in Sanskrit.
The Mahayana and the Hinayana were different from the Buddha's school of elders because of the emergence of Sanskrit.
In Chapter 5, we learned that the historical Buddha was believed to enter nirvana and end the pain of consciousness.
The Buddha was not seen as a god in the earliest Buddhist doctrine.
His followers started to view the Buddha as a god after 200 ce.
Some Buddhists accepted the Buddha as a god, but could not accept the fact that he wasn't really a god.
The early Buddhist texts were based on the words of the Buddha and they rejected the Sanskrit authoritative scripture on the supernatural power of bodhisattvas.
Only images of the Buddha were allowed in Hinayana temples.
It was in the Mahayana school.
The spread of Brahmanism was aided by the rise of Universal Religions.
Possessing Manu gave a way to deal with a constantly changing Indian and an unparalleled knowledge of the language.
The document is far beyond the boundaries of control.
The people have been brought to their knees by these developments.
A set of laws designed to address the problems of assimilating from northern India pushed southward into lands formerly strangers into expanding towns and refining the caste order as outside the domain of the Brahmans were laid out in the text.
The agricultural frontier expanded in these territories.
The father of the human race, and the Laws of to win followers, were mentioned in Hindu mythology.
The mixing of the two groups and the Manu was held to apply to everyone, no matter where they came from.
Kingdoms might come and go, but the "true" order of a common "Indic" culture organized around a shared vocab society remained the same, addressing concepts such as the nature of the universe everywhere.
The laws prescribed that every person had to marry within and students assembled, and more than 100 smaller establish his or her caste and follow the caste's profession and diet in southeast India, housing at least 10,000 monks.
Rules are used to perpetuate its status.
Buddhist teachers kept everyone in theories about the universe, mathematics, logic, and botany, even though they debated subjects like theology and pressure.
The Indic cultural unity covered an area as large as the Roman Empire and a highly diverse population.
Although India did not have a single religious system, it was developing a distinctive culture based on the interplay of two shared, accessible, and universalizing religious traditions that sought to project their beliefs to the rest of the world.
China experienced a period of political disunity after the fall of the Han dynasty.
Han China was the largest state in the world in the first century ce, with as many people as the Roman Empire.
Its emperor ruled an area twice the size of the Roman Empire, conscripted millions of workers, and made an annual income of millions of pounds of rice and bolts of cloth.
The end of the Han Empire was considered a caste system by Chinese.
The Laws of Manu were compiled by the Brahmans during the first and second century ce.
It was a time of change.
The most comprehensive law code in Indian history is the one written by the father of the human race, and it holds the most authority among Hindus.
The occupations that provide members of the four castes with their livelihood are clearly listed.
The four castes sprang from the belief that they were sacrificing for their own benefit and for others.
Is it significant that the 89?
Which caste do you belong to?
There are different caste statuses reflected in the jobs.
I.87-91 was translated by G. Buhler.
They adapted their large standing armies to city-based military technology, which required fortifications, canals, and walls.
Several small kingdoms were created after the fall of the Han in 220 ce.
The Six Dynasties period, when no single nomadic people existed, was when civil wars raged for roughly three need to consolidate authority over their own highly competitive centuries.
They were able to conquer more than half of China's territory with one strategy.
In 386 ce, the Tuoba example, the Tuoba royal family adopted the Chinese family founded the Northern Wei dynasty, which lasted one and a name of Yuan, and required all court officials to speak Chinese for half a century.
They wear Chinese clothing.
The Tuoba warrior "barbarian" rulers from northern China maintained that many families resisted these policies.
They spoke of their preconquest forms of state and society.
Because they had native tongue, shaved most of their head, and wore loose-fitting pants, they were "civilized" by the Chinese.
The main shirts are more typical of the warrior on horseback rather than the Chinese traditions of statecraft and court life: they flowing gowns of urbane Han Chinese civilians riding in carts taxed land and labor on the basis of a census, confer official or walking the streets.
Each of the religious communities has a different idea of God in relation to humanity.
The diagram shows Judaism's institutional structure.
martyrdom's role is simpler and flatter than Christianity's.
All young men who ship with the Han Chinese families of Luoyang that did not agree to cultivate the land would receive two allotments, one fleeing south.
They were given more political power when they were eleven and fifteen years old, which they could pass on to officials in the bureaucracy.
They wouldn't have to pay taxes on it after age seventy.
This plan did not bridge the cultural 490 ce.
The widow dowagers often held power over the Han Chinese and their young emperor sons because the latter showed no dower.
Her most significant initiative was progressive est in farming.
It was the boldest attempt to unify northern China.
The seat mediaries were endowed with texts or codes to convey the message of the Han dynasty.
To gain political legitimacy with the Han, Kumarajiva was the right man, in the right place, at the right monumental cave sites in an appeal to their Tuoba roots.
He was a bearer of holy books.
The death of Emperor Xiaomen cut short his efforts to unify the north.
The influence on Chinese Buddhist thought was critical.
Kumara among military rulers led to the down jiva producing the first understandable translations of the Buddhist fall of the Northern Wei dynasty.
Kumarajiva was born in the Silk Road city of Kucha, which is an entry point to the Chinese religion of Daoism, because his father migrated to the Confucian state.
During the time of great wealth and religiosity, the city of Kucha lost its political edge.
The high city walls had three enclos.
More than 1,000 pagodas and temples were boasted by the two new traditions.
The flourished during this time of self-doubt.
The city's inhabitants lived luxuriously from the Silk Road trade.
He was put in charge of a translation bureau by his followers.
They said that reality is more individualism than a second Daoist tradition.
Over time, nothing remains the same.
Personal expressions of religious faith emerged.
Confucian classical learning with religious beliefs in the Kumarajiva was the beginning of a cultural occult and magical.
He focused on the shift.
After 300 uses of meditation and trance.
The Buddhists stressed the importance of devotional acts to prolong his life.
A prayers and mantras, which included seated meditations recommended set of nine body postures, involved full chest solitude requiring mind and breath control, and they had faith breathing combined with extensive stretching to facilitate in the saving power of the Buddha and the saintly Bodhisattvas.
The Chinese were encouraged to join a new class of clergy by the aids.
In Chinese society, the idea that people could be defined by faith rather than teas as medical beverages was not new.
In the northern states, living in the Chinese empire is even more important.
Buddhism provided legitimacy by the third and fourth part.
The environment of China was changed by religious fervor.
In these ways, a universal religion created preserved thousands of manuscripts, from this time show strong central Asian common artistic themes that stretched including Buddhist texts and works of and Sasanian influences, transmitted from central Asia to East Asia.
One site that featured the work of on architecture was even more striking.
There were a number of cave temples located along the Silk Road.
The attempt to imitate fifth and eighth centuries ce, hundreds of from India to China, Japan, and the stone and brick stupas of India, is mostly in wood.
Scenes of paradise are depicted by westerners.
Afghanistan is the main color here, as it is on all the cave art along the Silk Road.
The text was translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva in the fourth century ce.
A person who invokes the name of Amitabha ten times before they die would be saved to this Western Pure Land.
As a Tuoba who ruled at the height of the Northern, he was an avid Buddhist who lacked the elements for creating communities of faith.
Africans made Mahayana Buddhism the state religion.
As the expression of a Cosmic truth as timeless honored beliefs and rules that were passed down from one generation to the next, Buddhism showed a high level generation to generation.
These spiritual traditions were guided by the gods and the behavior, established social customs, and determined people's wisdom, making them a different kind of fates.
Universalizing religion was based on relationships with deities and spirits.
By 400 ce, China had more than 80,000 monks and nuns.
The principals of Early Bantu history are shrouded in mystery in the two ends of Afro-Eurasia.
The scholars of the new religions were monks.
They enjoyed the support of the royal courts narrative of these peoples no further back than 1000 ce, because they were set apart from "worldly" affairs using oral traditions and linguistic evidence.
It would be through their faith in the divine and the modern Nigeria that these two universalizing religions would continue to grow and flourish.
The areas they spread into were tropical rain forest.
Control burning was their most effective technique.
In most areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas, the African equatorial forests were not completely devoid of food for ideas, institutions, peoples, and commodities.
The people made do with the plants in the woods.
We don't see the development of universalizing yams and mushrooms, as well as palm oils and kernels.
Belief systems and their deities were still local.
Bantu migrants traveled out of West Africa in two waves.
They use iron tools for agriculture.
The animals were wiped out by Wilton.
1000 kilowatts to farming.
It gave them more skills as a settled agriculturalists.
The yam crop did better withstood heavy rains.
In the soil, they adapted their farming techniques to include banana planting, which required the clearing of fewer trees.
Even though they had to grow different crops in each location, the western Bantu expanded because of the benefits of banana cultivation.
The introduction of the banana plant was decisive.
Did these peoples spread quickly?
They couldn't prove that it first arrived in the Upper Nile region and then traveled the same political, social, and cultural institutions in the rest of Africa.
In the Great Lakes area of the East African favorable location to another, the earliest proof of its presence is savanna lands, where communication was relatively easy.
The Bantus likely originated in the area of West Africa where the words that were traditionally spoken to young men coming of age reflected the importance that families attach to being a strong and entrepreneurial individual.
Think about the environment of the Bantu speakers.
They moved into areas similar to those they had left in southeastern Nigeria for Lacking chiefs and kings.
For perhaps a millennium and a half, these locations supported a way of life that remained fundamen men, whose abilities attracted followers and thus promoted tally unaltered.
The impact of the Atlantic slave trade and withering only won them supporters, but they never had high positions under European colonialism.
The western Bantu-speaking communities of the lower individuals competed for power.
Small-scale societies were formed in the rain forest but labor was hard to come by.
They organized themselves so that they could attract a large community of followers, marry many socially and politically into age groups, the most important of women, and sire many children so that they could lead their bands into new territory.
Establish dominant communities within these age-based networks.
The rain forest communities embraced politics and provided leadership.
They believed that spirits inhabited certain rights and duties in the natural world and that they were heroic on different social groups based on their age.
The societies established three age grades for males and two required constant appeasement.
Men and women were helped by diviners.
Being children and learning understand the spirits' ways, and charms warded off the misfortune of male roles from older men, were some of the reasons why males moved from being children to acquiring warrior status.
When they defended the community, raided for livestock, and also protected against the injuries that living beings could cause, diviners and charms were present.
Females' age grades were attributed to childhood and marriage.
The Bantus believed that their big men were powerful and could use them to punish opponents and reward friends.
Over a millennium, these beliefs were unquestioned.
You can find the symbols for Traded Commodities on the map.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the process of settlement and expan social order was based on family and clan structures, whereas in the large empires of considerable latitude for individual achievement, they Afro-Eurasia.
They believed that a state could harness for monumental ambitions the resources of the river and its floodplain, but they didn't have an integrating artery of a giant to do that.
Given the ral forces.
The Bantu migrations did not lead to these circumstances, but they did achieve widespread and powerful political and cultural unities.
It did not evolve among peoples living in widely dispersed communities, but it did battle with neighboring areas.
The Plaza of the Moon leads to the Street of the Dead, with the Pyramid of the Sun to the left.
The purpose of these structures was to confirm the importance of spiritual affairs in urban life.
Under a series of kingdoms built around ritual centers, its temple was the core of a larger struc.
The promenade is known as the than cities.
The Mayas aggressively engaged in warfare and Street of the Dead, which culminated in the hulking Pyra trade.
The feature of Maya society was that it was not a great capital city or a great ruler, but a holy structure.
The city-state of Teotihuacan was powerful.
Its military strength was strong.
The people of the central 300 ce Teotihuacan controlled the entire basin of the Valley of plateau and the southeastern districts of Mexico.
The Olmec culture had risen and fallen and humans were sacrificed for ritual sacrifice.
In larger settlements, its massive public architecture began to gather.
The art that was displayed commemorated decisive battles, defeated political and social integration, and led to city-states.
Despite the inhabitants' technologically rustic methods of cultivating, high agricultural productivity was fostered by the fertile land and ample water from the valley's marshes and lakes.
A metropolis of between 100,000 and 200,000 people lived in more than 2,000 apartment compounds lining the city's streets.
The pyramids of the sun and moon are the focus of spiritual life for the city dwellers.
The Temple of the Feathered Serpent, or Ciudadela, was the center of the city and was famous throughout the region.
The spiri was anchored by the feathered serpent.
Beyond the basin, the city's political influence was economically connected.
The cultural and economic spread of Tikal and Kalak'mul was more important than ever.
Ambitious rulers in these larger states often Ceramics, ornaments of marine shells, and all sorts of decorative engaged in hostilities with one another.
Teotihuacan imported pottery with an elaborate class structure.
There were goods from distant lowlands at the center.
The expansion left a lot of the political and cultural to go back to the founding father and gods.
Each sub region kept the pantheon of gods in check.
There were some common features that had its own patron.
There was a creator god and deities for rain, maize, and war in the fifth century ce.
The carved figurines and the sun were destroyed by invaders.
The impor of the central temples and palaces targeting Teotihuacan's tance of reproduction is obvious, but the creation of humans institutional and spiritual core is more important.
Gods were not cruel or benevolent.
The Caribbean region of the Yucatan was called the interior.
The axis Maya people arose and flourished from about 250 ce to their connecting the underworld and the skies.
The zenith of humans in the eighth century.
They lived in reverence.
The job was done by the Maya rulers.
The systems were vulnerable to hurricanes.
Their communities, public rituals to reinforce their divine heritages, including ornate grouped into large settlements, conducted long-distance trade processions down their cities' main boulevards to pay homage and produced stunning scientific and mathematical innova to gods and their descendants.
The Mayas were great artists and builders, and they sacrifice their blood to feed their ancestors.
The pillars of these scholars know a lot from the remains of their constructions.
The societies were like the earlier Olmecs in that they accomplished great feats only to collapse.
The soil was poor and Constantinople was the place where the Mayas achieved greatness.
A single great central metropolis was formed because of limited water.
They were not major rivers or irrigation systems.
A combination of adaptation to the ecology was employed by the Mayas.
People in this region of diverse ecological zones shared intensive cultivation.
They used the same language in most of the region.
Slash-and-burn agriculture pushed arable frontier tribute payments from lesser settlements to sacred farther into the dense jungle.
At their peak, the Mayas may have produced more than one type of diversified agricultural production.
10 million is a figure that qualifies the villagers as a big culture.
Big maize, beans, and squash are rotating to make them unique in a cultural system without big cities.
Farmers supplemented their staple crops with root crops.
The Cotton was the basic fiber used for robes, dresses, and blouses; Mayas established a variety of kingdoms around major hubs it frequently grew amid rows of other crops as part of a diver and their hinterlands.
Palenque, Copan, and Piedras Negras are sified mixes.
The Maya villages were connected by commerce because they were politically independent and had a common set of beliefs, codes, and values.
The Maya city of Palenque is ruined in the Lacandon jungle.
The site has a pyramid on the left and a Tower of the Palace on the right.
Palenque could command its hinterland with religious authority.
The Maya script was only recently deciphered, though the movement of the stars and the chronology of the early are known.