After the Tokugawa Ieyasu that lasted from tion of the shogunate, Tokyo's history began as Japan's most important city.
The shogunate was located at Edo, so it's called the Edo period.
The Tokugawa shoguns worked to improve relations with the daimyo.
The shogun could keep an eye on the daimyo and control their wives and sons as hostages if they left Edo every other year.
The Tokugawa Shogunate imposed peace, which resulted in a rise in population.
The Tokugawa shoguns froze social status to maintain stability.
Laws prescribed what each class could and could not do.
Nobles were not allowed to walk through the streets or lanes in places they had no business in.
Daimyo were not allowed to move troops outside their frontiers.
The Tokugawa shoguns were protected from daimyo attack by these rules.
The construction and repair of castles in Japan were restricted by the Tokugawa shoguns.
Tokugawa Ieyasu built a palace-like Nijo Castle to control the imperial court and the city of Kyoto.
The sliding doors were painted by leading artists of the period, making the castle as elegant as the imperial palace.
Those who were allowed to carry swords were called samurai.
They depended on their lords for stipends and had to live in castles.
Samurai were not allowed to become landholders because they couldn't establish ties to the land.
Merchants and artisans couldn't own land and had to live in towns.
Japanese castle-towns became sophisticated urban centers.
Japan limited its contacts with the outside world after 1639 because of concerns about the loyalty of subjects converted to Christianity by European missionaries and about the ambitions of European powers.
China was an important trading partner and source of ideas.
The samurai-turned bureaucrats had a stronger hold on Neo-Confucianism.
The period saw a school of native learning that rejected Buddhism and Confucianism as alien and tried to identify a distinctly Japanese ethos.
During the civil war period, warfare promoted social and economic change like it did in China during the Warring States Period.
Coins were imported from China and used more.
At the entrances to temples and shrines and at other places where people congregated, markets began appearing.
Some of the towns and cities sprang up around the new castles.
Guilds were formed by traders and artisans.
Despite chronic problems with pirates who raided the Japanese, Korean, and Chinese coasts, foreign trade flourished.
Similar changes in Europe did not affect these developments.
Most cities have merchant families with special privileges from the government.
A particular family dominated the local trade in a particular product and then branched out into other businesses and into other regions.
Japanese merchant families created their own procedures for their businesses.
The age of apprenticeship, the employee's adherence to the norm of a particular family business, salaries, and job performance are all determined by what today is called "family-style management principles".
Employees in a family business were expected to practice frugality.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1867, Japan was able to industrialize rapidly and compete with the West.
The ambitious and adventurous thronged to the cities in the 17th century were underemployed farmers and samurai.
Japan's cities grew tremen dously.
lacquer, brocade, and fine porcelain were manufactured in Kyoto.
The main market was Osaka.
The daimyo, their vassals, and government bureaucrats all congregated in Edo.
About a million people live in Osaka and Edo.
There were two hundred and fifty towns in this period.
Some, such as Kagoshima and Nagoya, had popu lations of between 65,000 and 100,000.
There are hundreds of towns along the main road to Edo to meet the needs of men traveling on the alternate residence system.
15 percent of the Japanese population resided in cities or towns in the 18th century.
The Tokugawa shoguns ended civil war by controlling the military.
Many of the daimyo and samurai passed their lives in pursuit of pleasure, spending extravagantly, because they were stripped of power and required to spend alternate years at Edo.
The samurai were engrossed in tavern brawls and sexual orgies.
These temptations, as wel as more sophisticated pleasures and the heavy costs of maintaining alternate residences at Edo, bankrupted the warrior class.