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12.4 Translation and the Genetic Code
The chapter contains the amino acid glycine.
There are a few rare exceptions to the genetic code.
There were only 42 or 16 different experiments that led to the decoding of the genetic code.
A three-base system can specify different codons, which is more than the number of acids.
The codons process that transcript.
This type ofRNA is called mes GGU, GGC, GGA, and GGG all code for the amino acid glycine.
The third base in the codon is known as the variable base.
Near the tide is a ribosomal-binding site.
Experiments that helped to "crack" the code will be explored.
The acid methionine is specified in AUG.
The ribosomal-binding site is where the start codon comes from.
Most codons have a sequence of three bases.
The bases are in the 5' to 3' direction.
There are different species that have the start codon removed from a genetic code.
For example, how would a methionine encode gene change in yeast and how in mammals.
There is an additional U added after the start codon.
A few hundred amino acids are a typical polypeptide.
A series of codons make up the polypeptide produced from coding sequence.
One of the three codons has a different sequence of amino acids.
Thr to make mRNA.
The 3' end and the 5' end are the same.
There are codons that specify the sequence of a polypeptide.
The first sequence shows how the codons would be translated correctly.
As the polypeptide is being synthesised, the tRNAs are detached.
There are no introns in this gene.
Figure 12.12 shows how DNA stores information to make a polypeptide.
Messenger RNA is a copy of the information that is used to make a polypeptide.
If the anticodon is 3'-AAG-5', it is compatible with a 5'-UUC-3' codon.
The genetic code states that a UUC codon C A G specifies phenylalanine.
A 3'-AAG-5' anticodon must carry phenylalanine.
A 3'-GGG-5' anticodon is similar to a 5'-CCC-3' codon, which specifies proline.
The proline must be carried by this tRNA.
The anticodon atom (N) at this end is the basis of anticodon/codon recognition.
There are bonds between the carboxyl group and genetic code.
The carboxyl group of the anticodon is 3 '-CAG-5'.
There is a codon with the sequence 5 '-GUC-3'.
A carboxyl group is a code.
This was always found at the end of the polypeptide.
tRNA must carry a valine at neutral pH.
The genetic code is contained in a tRNA anticodon.
In the early 1960s, the genetic code was deter sequence 3 '-CAG-5'.
The topic is translation.
The question asks if the components from the cytoplasm can synthesise polypeptides if the tRNA carries a certain type of acid.
They used the synthetic mRNA to figure out which question was about the 3'-CAG-5' anticodon.
polypeptides were incorporated from amino acids.
For anticodon and codon are complimentary and antiparallel, the thetic mRNA molecule has only adenine-based nucleotides.
According to the genetic code, 5'-AAAAAAAAAAAAAA-3' is a polypeptide.
A method used to decipher the genetic code is to make a drawing showing how the given chemical synthesis of short RNA molecule, as described next in the anticodon bind to a codon in an mRNA, is done.
In 1964, the discovery was made of theRNA molecule and the mRNA molecule.
The relationship between trip taining three nucleotides can cause a molecule to bind to a ribosome.
The let was added to 20 different tubes using a scintillation counter.
They added radioactivity to each tube.
They were able to deter that already had amino acids attached to them because only one of the in vitro translation systems contained ribosomes and tRNAs.
Each trans mine triples to which acid.
The exam lation system only had one type of radiolabeled amino acid.
There is one person shown here that corresponds to proline.
A second translation system with radiolabeled proline showed a large translation system with only serine.
Explain how a triplet mimics an mRNA molecule.
How useful was this observation in the study?
If the tRNA was bound to the triplets, they would be AUG, UAA, UAG, and UGA.
An RNA triplet can bind to a ribosome and promote the binding of the amino acid that it specifies.
The researchers made 20 translation systems.
The 20 translation systems had differing opinions on which amino acid was radiolabeled.
Radiolabeled glycine was added to the 1 translation system.
Radiolabeled proline was added to the system.
The translation systems contained the enzymes that attach to tRNAs.
The triplet is labeled 5'-CCC-3' in the example shown here.
The proline was labeled to bind to the triplet.
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