The study of behavior and the mind is called psychology.
The mind refers to the sensations, memories, motives, emotions, thoughts, and other subjective phenomena that are not readily observed.
Psychology is a science because it uses systematic observation and the collection of data to try to answer questions about the mind, behavior, and their interactions.
The mental processes underlying behavior are the subject of psychology.
In psychology, people tend to accept one theory and proceed under the assumptions of that theory until there is sufficient data inconsistent with it.
The prevailing theory is replaced by another.
Revisions of previous theories are what many theories are about.
As you read about the history of psychology, pay attention to how theories relate to each other.
The pre-history of psychology as a science was influenced by the ancient Greeks' speculations on the nature of the mind.
Humans have innate knowledge that is not obtainable simply by observing the physical world, as argued by Socrates and Plato.
We derive truth from the physical world according to Aristotle.
The basis for an empirical, scientific method was laid down by the application of logic and systematic observation.
The concept of dualism was raised by the early Greeks.
The world is divided into two parts: body and spirit.
In early psychology, dualism is a theme that recurs often, but the distinction between body and spirit prefigures current debates around the difference between the brain and the mind.
There was a long period of time after the heyday of the Greek philosophers in which little systematic investigation of psychological issues was conducted.
The lack of investigation was due to religious beliefs that the "spirit" portion of human nature could not be studied scientifically.
The prevailing theological views indicated that studying the natural world was only useful for God.
The scientific revolution of 1600-1700 changed the views of these people.
The discoveries made it clear that human nature was subject to scientific inquiry.
The dualist view of the human being was continued by Rene Descartes.
The physical world and all of the creatures in it are like machines, according to him.
Descartes believed that humans were the exception to the rule because of their minds.
Descartes said that the mind is not subject to natural laws.
Descartes believed that the mind and body interact and that the mind controls the body.
John Locke believed that Descartes's application of natural laws to all things was under the control of the mind.
The acquisition of truth through observations and experiences is what Locke's school of thought is known for.
Locke used the term tabula rasa to describe the mind of an infant in his book, Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
Almost all knowledge must be learned.
Locke believed that all knowledge should derive from experience.
Locke believed in nurture over nature as the greater influence on development.
The idea of a soul or spirit is meaningless according to Thomas Hobbes.
According to Hobbes, the only things that exist are matter and energy.
The machinery of the brain makes what we experience as consciousness.
Hobbes influenced behaviorism, which will be discussed later.
The 19th century was a time of great discovery.
The theory of natural selection changed science.
Charles Darwin proposed a theory of natural selection, in which all creatures have evolved into their present state over long periods of time.
There is variation in individuals in a species and the individuals that are best adapted to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Some of the characteristics that made their predecessors more likely to survive will likely be present in their offspring.
The process selects physical and behavioral characteristics that promote survival in a particular environment over time.
The use of animals as a means to study the roots of human behavior was affected by evolutionary theory.
Behavior and physiology are similar to help individuals survive.
In 1879, a laboratory was opened to study consciousness.
He wanted to apply the methods he used to study the body to the study of the mind.
One of the first to bring the science of psychology to the United States was Edward Titchener.
Titchener wanted to understand all of the parts of the mind in order to understand the larger structure of the mind.
Structuralism involves looking for patterns in thought, which are illuminated through interviews with a subject.
The interview process is known as introspection.
The experimenter could ask the subjects to describe their experience and then try to identify similarities between them.
The structuralist approach was opposed by William James.
The function of the mind is what is important, according to him.
James believed that the most important thing to understand is how the mind works.
Functionalism is a function-oriented approach.
The units of study in AP Psychology are informed by the work of a number of major historical figures in psychology.
Other figures play an important role in the history of psychology due to their individual accomplishments as well as the light they shed on the gender biases that affected their careers in particular and the field as a whole.
The first public mental hospital in the United States was founded by Dorothea Dix, who was crucial in advocating for the rights of mentally ill poor people.
The first female graduate student in psychology was denied a PhD because of her gender.
Margaret Floy Washburn was the first female PhD in psychology and the second female president of the American Psychological Association.
Although her thesis was the first foreign study to be published, she was not allowed to join the official organization of experimental psychologists because of her gender.
Half of the presidents of the Association for Psychological Science have been women, and about two-thirds of doctorates in psychology are held by women.
Modern psychology is a science because of the theories discussed above.
Nine of the most prominent approaches to modern psychology will be covered in the next section.
The theoretical perspectives discussed above are the roots of these approaches.
The field of psychology seeks to understand the interactions between the nervous system and other parts of the body.
In applying biological experimentation to psychological problems, it is possible to determine which part of the brain is involved in a particular behavioral process.
Researchers could use a variety of scans to accomplish this.
Behavioral genetics explores how certain behaviors may be attributed to specific psychological characteristics.
The extent of influence that the environment had on a trait is taken into account.
A person studying behavioral genetics might want to know how much risk-taking behavior in adolescents is due to genetics.
psychology is the study of observable behavior, according to behaviorism.
The mind or mental events can't be observed.
Ivan Pavlov identified classical conditioning as one of the behaviorists' most important early findings.
Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a behavior comes to be elicited by a previously neutral stimuli.
In the Little Albert experiment, John and his assistant made loud sounds behind a 9-month-old child to make him afraid of white and furry objects.
Operant conditioning is when a subject learns to associate a behavior with an environmental outcome.
Behavioral principles are still used in psychology to modify behavior, even though behaviorism is no longer the main approach.
To understand people's behavior, we must first understand how they view their environment.
This approach combines the structuralist approach of looking at the subcomponents of thought with the functionalist approach of understanding the purpose of thought.
The cognitive-behavioral approach replaced the purely behavioral approach as the main psychological method in the United States.
The tradition of studying the roles of consciousness, free will, and awareness of the human condition is behind the humanistic approach.
A general dissatisfaction with behaviorism's inattention to the mind and its function led to the development of this personality study.
Humanistic psychologists emphasize personal values and goals and how they influence behavior.
The idea of self-actualization was proposed by Abraham Maslow.
Accepting yourself and your nature is part of self-actualization.
The need for a positive self-concept as a critical factor in attaining self-actualization was stressed by Carl Rogers.
Sigmund Freud developed a theory of human behavior known as the psychoanalytic theory.
Freud cared about individuals and their mental problems.
The conscious mind and the unconscious mind are mental processes that we do not normally have access to, but that still influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings.
Psychoanalytic theory stresses the importance of early childhood experiences and a child's relationship with his or her parents to the development of personality.
The resolution of unconscious conflicts can be achieved through uncovering information that has been hidden.
People who subscribe to the sociocultural approach believe that the environment a person lives in has a great deal to do with how they behave.
If one wishes to understand, predict, or control behavior, cultural values must be taken into account.
The theories of Darwin are used in the evolutionary approach.
The behavior can be explained in terms of how adaptive it is.
Without fear, our survival would be jeopardized.
The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the need to investigate the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors as contributing to a behavior or a mental process.
The differences among the different approaches in psychology are some of the most essential ideas for you to understand for the AP Psychology Exam.
The common example of risk-taking in adolescence can be explored using each of the nine different approaches.
Broad areas of psychological research are known as domains.
There is a question about the effect of drugs on behavior.
There is a question about treatment options for someone addicted to drugs.
The other domains include: experimental, industrial-organizational, personality, psychometric, and the positive domain.