ChAPTER 31 -- Part 5: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman
The weakness of the Ming regime, rather than the Manchus' own strength, gave the most of Manchuria.
Their entry into China was due to luck and a bit of Manchuria.
An official in charge of the defense of the north called in the capital at Manchus to help put down the rebellion near the Great Wall.
Exploiting the political divisions and social unrest that were destroying what Manchu tribes identified by separate was left of Ming authority, the Manchus advanced on the Beijing capital which they flags.
After the south and west were destroyed by the banner armies in the 17th century, the Manchus found themselves emperor and established the Qing dynasty.
They proved they were able to rule the largest empire in the world.
Their armies forced submission by nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from kingdoms in the south.
They added to the court calendar whatever Confucian rituals they didn't already observe.
They made it clear that Vietnam is to the south.
Compare the timing and nature of the external threats posed for expansive and compelled even neighboring peoples who were each of the empires by rival powers and other external enemies not directly ruled to acknowledge their dominance.
Over the course of more than two centuries, the Ottoman empire's vast territories were lost to external enemies and to ambitious vassals.
The Qing Empire was founded in 1841.
The government of the republic of China lost control of regions far from their capitals in the 19th and first half of the 20th century.
In the first century of the dynasty, Chinese and Manchu officials were grouped in appointments to most of the highest posts of the imperial bureaucracy, and Chinese officials dominated at the regional and local levels.
Manchus, who made up less than 2 percent of the population, occupied a disproportionate number of the highest political positions.
There were no limits to how talented ethnic Chinese could be.
The Manchus had their own sons educated in the Chinese classics, unlike the conquerors who abolished it.
Thousands of scholars were employed to create encyclopedias of Chinese Sinification among the Manchus.
The Manchu determination to preserve much of the Chinese political system was paralleled by an equally conservative approach to Chinese society as a whole.
In the early centuries of their reign, the writings of Zhu Xi that had been so influential in the preceding dynasties continued to dominate official thinking.
Values such as respect for rank and acceptance of hierarchy were emphasized in education.
The extended family remained the core unit of the social order, and the state grew increasingly suspicious of any forms of social organization, such as guilds and secret societies.
The lives of women at all levels were centered on the household.
The state and family supported the dominance of elder men.
The practice of choosing brides from families with lower social status than those of the grooms enhanced male control.
Because they were a loss to their parents' household at marriage, daughters were less desirable than sons.
There are indications that the incidence of female infanticide rose despite the poor quality of the statistics.
In the population as a whole, males outnumbered females, a reversal of the balance in contemporary industrial societies.
Women from lower-class families continued to work in the fields and sell produce in the local markets, despite the fact that the world pretty much belonged to men.
The best thing a married woman could hope for was for her father and brother to support her after she had gone to her husband's home, as well as good luck in the first place to be chosen as the wife rather than as a second or third partner in the form of a con If they lived long enough, wives took charge of the household.
They exercised control over other women and younger men in elite families.
After conquering China, the Manchus took a number of strong measures to address the rural distress and unrest of the last years of the Ming rule.
State labor demands were lowered.
Incentives such as tax-free tenure were offered to those who wanted to resettle lands that had been abandoned.
Up to 10 percent of the imperial budget was devoted to repairing existing dikes, canals, and roadways in the early years of the dynasty.
Peasants were encouraged to grow two or three crops per year on their holdings and to plant new crops for market demand.
The regime had little success in controlling the landlord classes because of the growing population pressure on the cultivable acres.
The landlord classes were able to add to their estates by using loans to peasants or buying them out.
Tenants had less bargaining power with landlords when there was a surplus of workers.
If they objected to the share of the crop the landlords offered, they were turned off the land and replaced by those who would accept less.
The gap between the rural gentry and ordinary peasants and laborers increased.
One could not miss the old and new rich in the rural areas, as they rode or were carried in sedan chairs, adorned in silks and furs, to make social calls to their peers.
Many men in the gentry class let their nails grow long to show that they didn't have to do physical labor.
The state and the mercantile classes made a lot of money from the influx of silver that flowed into China in the 18th century.
Wealthy new group of people came to Canton, and Chinese merchants were freed from restrictions against overseas travel, which resulted in lucrative market outlets overseas.
One of the major links between China and the outside world in the 19th century was the merchants.