The study of compounds containing carbon atoms is called organic chemistry.
The industries based on organic substances have changed our lives.
A new world has been created by the development of materials such as nylon for fabrics, Velcro for fastenings, and Kevlar for the composites used in exotic cars, airplanes, and bicycles.
The basis of most natural substances are carbon and Silicon.
The basic structures for most rocks, sands, and soils can be found in chains and rings formed by Silicon with its affinity for oxygen.
The fundamental materials of the earth are Silicon compounds.
Carbon is to the organic world or the geologic world.
Long chains or rings of carbon atoms can be formed by bonding strongly to itself.
Several million carbon compounds are now known, and the number continues to grow.
The biomoleculesA molecule that functions in maintaining and/or reproducing life is one of the many compounds.
Although a few compounds of carbon, such as the oxides of carbon and carbonates, are considered to be inorganic substances, the vast majority of carbon compounds are designated as organic compounds--compounds that typically contain chains or rings of carbon atoms.
The distinction between organic and inorganic substances used to be based on whether they were produced by living systems.
Until the early 19th century, it was thought that organic compounds could only be synthesised by living organisms.
Friedrich Wohler, a German chemist, dispelled the misconception when he prepared urea from the salt by heating it.
It's clear that urea is an organic material formed by living things, but there's evidence that it could be produced in the laboratory as well.
Our quest to understand living systems relies on organic chemistry.
Synthetic fibers, plastics, artificial sweeteners, and medicines that we take for granted are products of industrial organic chemistry.
Coal and petroleum are the main sources of energy that we rely on to power our civilization.
A close-up photo of a synthetic organic material.
We can only introduce organic chemistry briefly in this text.
We will begin with the simplest class of organic compounds, the hydrocarbons, and then show how most other organic compounds can be derived from hydrocarbons.
To understand the bonds formed by the carbon atom.
Carbon forms strong bonds to itself and many other elements.
A carbon atom can form bonds to a maximum of four other atoms, either carbon atoms or atoms of other elements.
Diamond is a form of pure carbon in which each carbon atom is bound to four other carbon atoms.
Methane, CH4 is the main component of natural gas.
The methane molecule has a carbon atom with four hydrogen atoms.
The four pairs of bonding electrons around the carbon have minimum repulsions when they are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
The structure for CH4 is shown in Figure 20.1.
When carbon has four atoms bound to it, they will always have a tetrahedral arrangement.
Methane is made up of four parts.
Carbon can form multiple bonds if it bonds to less than four elements.
A multiple bond involves sharing more than one pair of electrons.
Carbon is bound to two other atoms in CO2 and to one other atom in CO.
CO2 and CO are classified as substances of nature.
Multiple bonding is also found in organic compounds.
Each carbon is bound to one C atom and two H atoms.
There are two hydrogen and one carbon atoms bound to each other.
The structures of propane and butane shown in Figure 20.3 show how carbon can form chains of atoms.
Each carbon atom is bound to four different atoms.
In the next section, we will discuss these molecules in more detail.
To learn about the saturated carbon atoms in alkanes.
The compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
Those with carbon-carbon bonds that are all single bonds are said to be saturated because each carbon is bound to four atoms.
The carbon atoms involved in a multiple bond can bond to more than one atom.
The addition of hydrogen shows this.
After one bond of the carbon-carbon double bond is broken, the carbon can bond to one additional atom.
ethane is a saturated hydrocarbons, each carbon atom is bonding to four atoms.
Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanesSaturated hydrocarbons.
The simplest alkane is methane, CH4.
ethane, C2H6 is shown in Figure 20.2 as the next alkane with two carbon atoms.
There are four atoms of carbon in ethane.
The structure of ethane is represented by two models.
The next two members of the series are propane with three carbon atoms and the formula C3H8 and butane with four carbon atoms and the formula C4H10 The molecule are shown in Figure 20.3.
These are saturated hydrocarbons and each carbon has four atoms.
Normal hydrocarbons, straight-chain hydrocarbons, and unbranched hydrocarbons are alkanes in which the carbon atoms form strings.
The chains in normal alkanes are not straight but zigzag because of the C--C--C angle.
Each member is obtained from the previous one through the use of a methylene, CH2 group.
The C--H bonds can be omitted from the structural formulas.
The normal alkanes have six and eight carbon atoms.
The molecule has 14 hydrogen atoms and 6 carbon atoms.
The formula is C6H14
There are 18 hydrogens in this molecule.
The formula is C8H18.
The alkane with ten carbon atoms can be represented as CH3 and its formula is C10H22.
The formula C15H32 is used for the alkane with fifteen carbons.
Problems 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, and 20.14 can be seen.
Table 20.1 shows the first 10 straight-chain alkanes.
All alkanes can be represented by the formula CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms.
Nonane, which has nine carbon atoms, is represented by C9H2 or C9H20.
The formula CnH2n+2 reflects the fact that each carbon in the chain has two hydrogen atoms except the two end carbons, which have three each.
The number of hydrogen atoms is twice as many as the number of carbon atoms.
The general formula CnH2n+2 can be represented by the alkane with 15 carbon atoms.
The formula was found in Self-Check Exercise 20.1
To learn how to draw structural formulas.
Structural isomerism can be seen in butane and all succeeding alkanes.
When two molecules have the same atoms but different bonds, it's called structural isomerism.
The molecule has the same formulas but different arrangements of the atoms.
As shown in Figure 20.4, butane can be either a straight-chain molecule or a branched-chain structure.
Structural isomers have different properties because of their different structures.
Each molecule is represented by a ball-and-stick structure, a space-filling structure, and a structure that shows the shared electrons as lines.
The isomers of C5H12 are drawn.
We write the straight carbon chain and add hydrogen atoms to find the isomeric structures.
The H atoms can now be added to the straight-chain structure.
We bond the C atom to the second carbon in the chain and then put on the H atoms to make a structure called isopentane.
This molecule is called neopentane and can be written in shorthand form.
The space-filling models are shown in the margin.
All of them have the formula C5H12 as required.
The structure shown in part 2 has the same skeleton of carbons as the three other structures.
To learn about the system for naming alkanes.
It would be hard to remember common names for all of the millions of organic compounds.
We learned a systematic method for naming organic compounds in Chapter 5.
We will summarize the principles applied in naming alkanes as a set of rules.
Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are the first four members of the alkane series.
The alkanes are named after the Greek root for the number of carbon atoms.
A straight-chain alkane is the complete name for this alkane.
The root name for the hydrocarbon is given by the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms.
The name of the compound is not important at this point, but it will be called a hexane.
Alkanes without a hydrogen atom can be attached to a chain with one hydrogen atom.
The molecule can be seen as a five-carbon chain in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by a methane, CH4 molecule.
A substituent is a group that is replaced for hydrogen on an alkane chain.
Drop the -ane, and add the -yl to name the CH3 substituent.
CH3 is called methyl.
We get CH3 CH2 when we remove one hydrogen from ethane.
Adding -yl gives this group the name ethyl.
There are two ways in which the propyl group can be attached.
If a hydrogen is removed from butane, CH3 CH2 CH3 we get a butyl substituent.
There are four ways in which the atoms can be arranged in the butyl group.
The names are shown in Table 20.2.
The names of the most common alkyl substituents.
Table 20.2 shows the common alkyl groups.
The first substituent occurs at the end of the longest chain of carbon atoms.
The compound is called 3-methylhexane.
The smallest number for the position of the substituent is given by the left end of the molecule.
There is a hyphen between the number and the name of the substituent.
A prefix is used when a given type of substituent occurs more than once.
We use numbers and di- to find the two methyl substituents on the chain.
2,3-dimethylpentane is a name.
The principles we have just developed are summarized in the following rules.
The base alkane name is determined by the parent chain.
The first alkyl substituent is the number of the carbons in the parent chain.
The next substituent should be used to determine from which end to start numbering.
Use the appropriate name for each alkyl group to specify its position on the parent chain.
Attach the appropriate prefix to the alkyl name when it occurs more than once.
The alkyl groups are listed in chronological order.
Give the systematic name for each of the structural isomers.
We begin by rearranging the carbons to form the shorter, branched chains.
This alkane has six carbons all in the same continuous chain, so we call it n-hexane.
A carbon is taken out of the main chain and turned into a substituent.
The carbon skeleton is named after the longest chain with five carbons.
The chain is numbered from the left to the right.
The number 2 is the number of carbon to which the group is attached.
The name is 2-methylpentane.
The methyl group would be on carbon 4 if we numbered the chain from the right end.
The numbering shown is correct because we want the smallest possible number.
The name of the substituent is 3-methylpentane.
There were many possibilities for placing a single group on pentane.
The root name of the molecule is butane because the longest chain has four carbons.
The prefix di- is used because there are two groups on carbons 2 and 3.
The molecule is called 2,3-dimethylbutane.
When two or more numbers are used, they are separated by a colon.
The carbon skeleton is butane, and there are two methyl groups on the number 2 carbon.
2, 2-dimethylbutane is a name.
As we search for more isomers, we might try to place an ethyl substituent on the four-carbon chain to give the molecule, but this is incorrect.
The longest chain has five carbon atoms, so it is not a new isomer.
The correct name for the molecule is 2,2dimethylbutane because it has a long chain of four atoms.
There are five distinct structural isomers of C6H14.
The molecule is 5-ethyl-3-methyloctane.
The name 3-ethyl-5-methylheptane could be given to this chain from the opposite direction.
Both of these names are correct.
Problems 20.25 and 20.26 can be seen.
We have learned how to name a compound by looking at its structural formula.
The structural formula must be written from the name.
The name indicates an ethyl group attached to carbon 4 and two methyl groups, one on carbon 3.
The root name decate indicates a ten-carbon chain.
There are two groups at the number 4 and 5 position.
There are problems 20.
27 and 20.28.
To learn about the uses of oil.
Woody plants, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are some of the sources of energy that came from the sun.
Plants use the process of photosynthesis to store energy that we can claim by burning the plants themselves or the decay products that have been converted to fossil fuels.
The United States has a dependency on oil that is relatively recent.
The remains of marine organisms that lived 500 million years ago are believed to have formed the deposits of oil and gas.
A thick, dark liquid composed mostly of hydrocarbons with up to 25 carbon atoms.
Natural gas is usually associated with petroleum deposits, but also contains significant amounts of ethane, propane, and butane.
To be used efficiently, petroleum must be separated by boiling into fractions.
The smaller hydrocarbons can be boiled off at relatively low temperatures.
Table 20.3 shows the major uses of various fractions.
There are chain lengths present in each fraction.
Section 3.5 discussed Distillation.
During the Industrial Revolution, the demand for lamp oil outpaced the traditional sources of animal fats and whale oil.
Drake drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania in response to increased demand.
The oil from this well was refined and used to make lamp oil.
The gasoline was of limited use and often discarded.
The birth of the gasoline age was signaled by the advent of the "horseless carriage" and the development of the electric light.
New ways to increase the yield of gasoline were sought as gasoline became more important.
The process of pyrolytic cracking was invented by William Burton.
More efficient internal combustion engines were designed as cars became larger.
The engines "knocked" because of the burning of the gasoline that was available.
A very effective antiknock agent was found in intensive research to promote smoother burning.
In 1960 gasoline contained as much as 3 grams of lead per gallon.
In recent years, we have found that technological advances can cause environmental problems.
It poisons the catalytic converters that have been added to exhaust systems to help prevent air pollution.
The amount of lead in the environment has increased because of the use of leaded gasoline.
The use of lead in gasoline has largely stopped.
Modifications of engines and the refining process have been required.
The raw material for the synthesis of polymers is petroleum.
To learn about chemical reactions that alkanes undergo.
The C--C and C--H bonds in alkanes are strong at low temperatures.
Alkanes are valuable as lubricating materials and as the basis for structural materials.
Alkanes react with oxygen at high temperatures.
The basis of the alkanes' widespread use as fuels are the combustion reactions.
One or more hydrogen atoms of the alkane can be replaced by different atoms in a substitution reaction.
A chlorine atom with an unpaired electron is very reactive and can disrupt the C--H bond.
Each step in the process involves the replacement of a C--H bond.
A hydrogen atom is replaced by a chlorine atom.
The products of these reactions are called chloro for the chlorine substituents with a prefix that gives the number of chlorine atoms present: di- for two, tri- for three, and tetra- for four.
Because methane has only one carbon atom, no number is used to describe the chlorine positions.
The last two reactions have a systematic name and a common name in parentheses.
In addition to substitution reactions, alkanes can also undergo dehydrogenation reactions in which hydrogen atoms are removed from alkanes, resulting in an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
ethane can be dehydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst at high temperatures.
To learn to name the hydrocarbons with double bonds and triple bonds.
To understand the reactions.
Each of the carbon atoms is bound to four atoms by a single bond.
The general formula is CnH2n.
Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon triple bonds are called alkynesUnsaturated hydrocarbons.
CnH2n-2 is the general formula.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons include alkenes and alkynes.
When hydrogen atoms are removed from alkanes, multiple carbon-carbon bonds result.
The general formula CnH2n is used for alkenes with a carbon-carbon double bond.
The ball-and-stick model of ethylene is shown.
The acetylene is formed by the reaction of CaC2 with water.
We have used the same system for naming alkanes.
The rules are useful.
The double or triple bond can be found in the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms.
The root name of the carbon chain is the same as for the alkane, except that the -ane ending is replaced by -ene.
The -ane is replaced by -yne.
The lowest carbon involved in the bond is given the location of the multiple bond.
C1H2 is called 1-butene and C1H3 is called 2-butene.
The same treatment is given to substituents on the parent chain.
The molecule is called 1-chloro-1-butene.
The hydrogen atoms are written after the carbon to which they are attached in shorthand formulas.
The root name for the hydrocarbon is 2-hexene, because the carbons start from the end closest to the double bond.
The number 4 carbon has a group attached to it.
The compound's name is 4-methyl-2-hexene.
The longest chain of carbon atoms is seven carbons long, and the chain is numbered as shown, starting from the end closest to the triple bond.
The full name is 5-ethyl-3-heptyne because of the ethyl group on carbon number 5.
octene is the root name of the longest chain with eight carbon atoms.
3-octene is the name of the double bond between carbons 3 and 4.
The number-2 carbon has a group on it.
1-pentyne is the name.
Problems 20.45 and 20.46 can be seen.
The most important reactions of alkenes and alkynes are addition reactions in which new atoms form single bonds to the carbon atoms in unsaturated hydrocarbons that were involved in double or triple bonds.
An addition reaction for an alkene changes the carbon-carbon double bond to a single bond, giving a saturated hydrocarbon.
The addition of a hydrogen atom to each carbon is caused by hydrogenation reactions in which H2 is a reactant.
Solid shortenings can be made using hydrogenation of molecule with double bonds.
Saturated fats are usually liquids at room temperature, whereas unsaturated fats are usuallysolids.
Liquid saturated fats are converted to solid saturated fats by hydrogenation.
An addition reaction in which a halogen is a reactant of hydrocarbons involves the addition of atoms.
A process in which many small molecule are joined together to form a large molecule is one of the important reactions of certain unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Section 20.16 will discuss the topic of polymerization.
To learn more about aromatic hydrocarbons.
When a mixture of hydrocarbons from natural sources, such as petroleum or coal, are separated, certain compounds that emerge have pleasant odors and are known as aromatic hydrocarbons.
A six-membered ring of carbon atoms called the benzene ring is found in all of the substances, which include wintergreen, cinnamon, and vanillin.
The formula C6H6 and the structure of the bond angles are 120 degrees.
Cinnamon is aromatic.
A ring is formed by six carbon atoms bonding together.
Each carbon has a hydrogen atom.
The representation doesn't show all the bonds between the carbon atoms.
More than one Lewis structure can be drawn from the bonding in the benzene ring.
The double bonds can be found in different places, as shown in Figure 20.7 The benzene ring is usually shown with a circle because it is a combination of structures.
The ring is drawn with a circle inside to show that it is a combination of different Lewis structures.
To learn how to name aromatic compounds.
Replacing one or more of the H atoms on the benzene ring with other atoms or groups of atoms creates a substitute benzene molecule.
We will look at benzene rings with one substituent first.
The method for naming monosubstituted benzenes uses a substituent name.
Special names can be given to monosubstituted benzene compounds.
It is given the name toluene for convenience.
The examples in Figure 20.9 are monosubstituted benzenes.
The names of some benzenes.
If we view the benzene ring as a substituent, it is more convenient to name compounds.
When the benzene ring is used as a substituent, it is called the phenylThe benzene molecule minus one hydrogen atom.
The compound name is 3-phenyl-1-butene.
We begin to number the chain from the end closest to the first substituent and name the substituents in alphabetical order.
When there are more than one substituent on the benzene ring, numbers are used to indicate their position.
For two substituents with one carbon between them, and two substituents opposite each other, a naming system uses the prefix ortho- (o-) for two adjacent substituents, meta- (m-) for two substituents with one carbon between them, and para The term ortho -dichlorobenzene can also be used for 1,2-dichlorobenzene.
xylene is a special name for Benzenes that have two methyl substituents.
The balls used to be composed of "fused" benzene rings but now contain p -dichlorobenzene.
When two different substituents are present on the benzene ring, one is assumed to be at carbon number 1 and the other is not.
The examples in Figure 20.10 are disubstituted benzenes.
The names of some disubstituted benzenes.
The names are given in parentheses.
Benzene is an aromatic molecule.
A number of benzene rings can be seen as more complex aromatic systems.
Table 20.4 contains some examples.
The name of the ethyl group in the 1 and 3 positions is 1,3-diethylbenzene or m-diethylbenzene.
The group is called toluene.
The bromine is in a certain position.
The name is 4-bromotoluene.
The compound is named as a butyne with a phenyl substituent.
3-phenyl-1-butyne is the name.
The --CH3 group is assumed to be on carbon number 1.
The name is 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.
This compound is used in high explosives.
Problems 20.55 and 20.56 can be seen.
Most people don't get a lot of respect for them.
They are considered to be destructive insects.
The first insects known to fumigate their nest with a chemical long used by humans are the termites.
Although they don't bother with holes in their sweaters, termites may use naphthalene to ward off pests.
The Louisiana State University Agricultural Center in Baton Rouge has observed that Formosan termites are resistant to naphthalene.
These insects build their underground galleries from chewed wood and saliva.
The air in the underground tunnels has significant amounts of naphthalene in it.
It's not known what the source of the naphthalene is, it could be from a food source or it could be produced from a carton.
This example shows how organisms use chemistry to protect themselves.
To learn about the functional groups in the organic molecule.
Most of the organic molecule have elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen.
Most of these substances can be classified as organic molecule that contain one or more elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen, molecule that are fundamentally hydrocarbons but that have additional atoms or groups of atoms called functional groups.
One example of a compound that contains that functional group is given for each of the common functional groups.
In the next few sections, we will learn to name the compounds that are in some of the functional groups.
R and R may be the same or different.
These substances are called alkyl halides.
To learn how to name simple alcohols.
The presence of the --OH group is indicative of alcoholsOrganic compounds in which the hydroxyl group is a substituent on a hydrocarbon.
Table 20.6 contains some common alcohols.
Replacing the final -e of the parent hydrocarbon name with -ol is how the systematic name for an alcohol is obtained.
The position of the -- OH group is specified by a number that is the smallest of the substituent numbers.
There are rules for naming alcohols.
The --OH group is contained in the longest chain of carbon atoms.
The carbon with the -- OH group gets the lowest possible number.
The root name should be obtained from the name of the parent chain.
Alcohols are classified by the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon.
Give the systematic name for each of the alcohols, and specify whether the alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary.
The compound is called 2-butanol because it is located at the number 2 position of a four-carbon chain.
The carbon to which the OH is attached has two R groups attached.
This is a secondary alcohol.
The chain is numbered with the lowest possible number attached to it.
3-chloro-1-propanol is a name.
This is a primary alcoholic beverage.
The name of the chain is 6-bromo-2-methyl-2-hexanol.
The carbon where the --OH is attached also has three R groups attached is a tertiary alcohol.
There are problems 20.61 and 20.62.
To learn how alcohols are made.
Although there are many important alcohols, the simplest ones have the greatest commercial value.
Methanol, also known as wood alcohol because it was formerly obtained by heating wood in the absence of air, is prepared industrially (over 20 million tons per year in the United States) by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide.
Methanol is used as a starting material for the synthesis of acetic acid.
It can be used as a motor fuel.
In the engines of the cars that are driven in the Indianapolis 500 and similar races, pure methanol has been used for many years.
Racing engines use methanol because of its resistance to knock.
It's good for regular cars because it produces less carbon monoxide in the exhaust than gasoline.
Methanol can cause death and blindness if you swallow it.
The alcohol found in beverages such as beer, wine, and whiskey is produced by the fermentation of the sugar in corn, barley, grapes, and so on.
The yeast can no longer survive if the alcohol content is more than 13%, which is found in most wines.
The ferment mixture is used to make beverages with higher alcohol content.
Antifreeze is used to protect the cooling systems of automobiles.
Gasohol can be added to gasoline to make it more fuel efficient and can be burned in the internal combustion engines of automobiles.
It is also used in the preparation of acetic acid.
In the United States, half a million tons of ethanol are produced each year.
Many alcohols contain more than one group.
Most of the 1 million tons of phenol produced annually in the United States is used to make products.
To learn how to make general formulas for aldehydes and ketones.
The carbonyl group is never at the end of the chain in a ketone.
The carbonyl group always appears at the end of the hydrocarbon chain in aldehydesOrganic compounds.
There is always at least one hydrogen bond to the carbonyl carbon atom.
We use compact formulas for aldehydes.
For example, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are usually represented as HCHO and CH3CHO.
It is written as CH3COCH3 or CH32CO.
acetone is often found in nail polish remover and is one of the useful solvent properties of many ketones.
Aldehydes have strong odors.
Vanillin and cinnamaldehyde make up the smell of cinnamon.
rancid butter has an unpleasant odor due to the presence of butyraldehyde and butyric acid.
The oxidation of alcohols is the most common method of producing aldehydes and ketones.
To learn how to name aldehydes and ketones.
A systematic name for an aldehyde can be obtained by removing the final -e and adding -al.
A number indicates the position of the carbonyl group where necessary, and the final -e is replaced by -one.
The positions of other substituents are specified by numbers.
The names in parentheses are more common than the systematic names.
There is an alternative system for naming ketones.
The longest chain has four carbon atoms with the group in the number 2 position, so we can call it a 2-butanone.
The name of the group is 3-methyl-2-butanone because it's in the number 3 position.
This compound can be named.
The molecule is called 3-nitrobenzaldehyde because it's in the number 3 position.
The molecule is called ethyl phenyl ketone.
4-chloropentanal is a name.
The number 1 carbon is assigned to an aldehyde group at the end of the chain.
73 and 20.74 can be found here.
To learn the names of the carboxylic acids.
The formula of a carboxylic acid is RCOOH.
The weak acids in these molecules are in the solution.
We name carboxylic acids by dropping the final -e from the parent alkane.
By their common names, carboxylic acids are often known.
The name ethanoic acid is used for CH3COOH because the parent alkane is ethane.
Table 20.7 contains the names of several carboxylic acids.
A strong oxidizing agent can be used to oxidize primary alcohols.
We can oxidize alcohol to acetic acid with the use of permanganate.
An alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid to form a water molecule.
The water and acetic acid are produced by the reaction of acetic acid and alcohol.
The odor of the parent carboxylic acids can be very strong, while the odor of the eskets can be very sweet.
Amyl is a common name.
Similar to carboxylic acids, esters are referred to by their common names.
The alcohol and acid names are followed by the alkyl name, where the -ic ending is replaced by -ate.
The systematic name for this ester is isopropylethanoate.
The reaction of acetic acid and salicylic acid creates a very important ester.
acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, is manufactured in huge quantities and is widely used as a pain killer.
To learn about some of the same things.
Large, usually chain-like molecule built from many small molecule (monomers) are large, usually chainlike molecule that are built from small molecule called monomers.
The revolution brought about in our lives by chemistry during the past 50 years has been caused by the use of polymers as the basis for synthetic fibers, rubbers, and plastics.
The simplest and one of the best-known synthetic polymers is polyethylene.
The plastic is used for many purposes, such as insulation for piping, bottles, electrical insulation, film for packaging, garbage bags, and many more.
Its properties can be changed by substituting erythritol.
The Teflon is obtained when the monomer is tetra-fluoroethylene.
Teflon is a tough and nonflammable material that is widely used for electrical insulation, cookware, and bearings because of its resistance to chemical attack.
The boat is made from plastic bottles.
Other similar polyethylene-type polymers are made from chloro, methyl, cyano, and phenyl substituents.
The carbon-carbon double bond in the substituted ethylene monomer becomes a single bond in the polymer.
A wide variety of properties can be found from the different substituents.
The process in which monomers simply "add together" to form polymers is called addition polymerization and is one of the major types of polymerization reactions.
The process in which a small molecule, such as water, is produced for each extension of the polymer chain is called condensation polymerization.
nylon is the most familiar of the Polystyrenes produced by condensation.
There are two different types of monomers that combine to form the chain of nylon, which is a single type of monomer.
Producing great instrumental music requires a combination of musical talent on the part of the performer and a high-quality instrument.
Wood is the main component of stringed instruments.
Hemicellulose is a branched polysaccharide with a lower molar mass that is found in wood.
Lignin is a complex branched polymer.
Most of the sound comes from the instrument's body.
The use of specific wood can have a profound effect on the sound.
The violins made in Cremona, Italy, by Antonio Stradivari, Nicolo Amati, and Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri are one of the great mysteries of musical instruments.
The violins made by these masters have unique sounds.
For the last 30 years, Joseph Nagyvary has worked to understand the unique properties of the Cremonian instruments.
Nagyvary has found that the violins' secrets lie in the treatment of the wood before they were built.
As the wood floated down the river, it was soaked.
The wood was treated with a chemical soak to kill pests and to prevent mold.
Nagyvary's analyses show that the chemical soak was complex and likely prepared by a local chemist.
His studies show that the wood may have been treated with a solution of borax.
The hemicellulose content of the wood was reduced.
More than 150 violins were built using the knowledge Nagyvary gained from studying the Cremonian instruments.
He has been able to match the sounds of the Cremonian instruments.
Modern instruments are constructed with chemistry in mind.
The quality of the sound in acoustic guitars is influenced by the coating used on the wood.
A hard coating is more likely to emphasize high frequencies than a softer coating.
The speakers of your audio system need chemistry.
A speaker's components generate a lot of heat when they vibrate.
Only 2% of the speaker's energy is converted to sound.
The rest is cold.
Sound chemistry is required for great sounds.
The molecule formed, which is called a dimerA molecule consisting of two monomers joined together, can undergo further condensation reactions because it has an carboxyl group at the other end.
Both ends are free to react.
The nylon reaction can be used as a lecture demonstration.
The nylon's properties can be changed by changing the number of carbon atoms in the amine or acid chain.
The nylon reaction can be carried out in a beaker.
Each C--N bond forms a molecule of HCl.
The reaction to form nylon is discussed in the text.
She has had a big impact on modern society despite being SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA Ms. Kwolek is the scientist responsible for the discovery of Kevlar, a strong, light fiber used in "bulletproof" vests that are worn by many law enforcement officers.
More than 3000 police officers have survived life-threatening injuries because of the golden-colored fiber discovered by Kwolek.
Many soldiers have been saved.
Since 1991, nearly every U.S. service member has worn a helmet.
Reinforcement for tires, special cables for suspension bridges, as a component of flame- resistant clothing, and in various types of sports equipment are some of the uses of Kevlar.
Kwolek is wearing gloves.
The basis of Kevlar was discovered by Ms. Kwolek in 1965, when she was 42 years old.
According to tests, Kevlar is five times stronger than steel.
The attraction between atoms on adjacent strands is what makes Kevlar strong.
The Kevlar chains line up in parallel to maximize the interchain interactions, instead of being random like a plate of spaghetti.
She attributes her scientific curiosity to her father, who took her on many hikes to collect samples in her native Pennsylvania.
She wanted to be a doctor but couldn't afford to go to medical school, so she took a job in the chemical industry.
Ms. Kwolek was in the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1995.
There is a portion in bold.
More than 1 million tons of nylon are produced in the United States each year.
Other types of condensation are also produced.
Dacron is formed from the condensation reaction of a dialcohol and a dicarboxylic acid.
Dacron is a type of plastic.
Dacron can be blended with cotton to make clothing.
Methane (20.5) and substitution reactions (20.6) are examples of reactions in which an atom, usually a halogen, replaces a hydrogen atom.
The formula is CnH2n (20.7) alkynesUnsaturated hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon triple bond.
The study of compounds containing carbon is called organic chemistry.
There are rings of carbon atoms in most organic compounds.
Saturated hydrocarbons have four single bonds to each carbon and are called organic compounds.
Alkenes contain one or more double carbon-carbon bonds, and are named as alkanes with the final -ane replaced.
Alcohols have one or more groups.
The root name of the parent alkane is used to name alcohols.
The carbonyl groups are named by using the parent alkane root and -al ending Ketone.
Group of students in class will be asked these questions.
For introducing a topic in class, these questions work well.
A correct structure can be made from the name given.
Draw a structural formula.
Draw the structures of three isomeric alcohols that show primary, secondary, and tertiary structures for the general formula C6H14O.
Provide an example of each of the additions and condensations.
Do the same for both of them.
A chemistry major claims to have made a compound in the lab.
Carbon can only make four bonds and that's why it's not possible.
Draw the structure of a molecule with a double bond.
A triple bond is the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms.
The region of the triple bond is formed by the sharing of three pairs.
The bond angles around the carbon atoms make the chains zigzag in normal alkanes.
Draw structures to show the isomers.
A branched alkane has one or more shorter carbon-atom chains attached to the side of the main carbon-atom chain.
Draw structural formulas and give common names for the three isomers of C5H12 without looking at the text.
The root name for a branched hydrocarbon is derived from the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms.
The longest continuous chain of carbon atoms can be found when naming alkanes.
The base alkane name is determined by the parent chain.
The alkyl groups are listed in alphabetical order.
The following branched alkanes have a systematic name.
To be used efficiently, petroleum must be separated by boiling into fractions.
etraethyl lead was added to gasoline to prevent "knocking" of high-efficiency automobile engines.
The use of this substance is being discontinued because of the danger it poses to the environment.
Alkanes are relatively unreactive.
An equation showing the burning of propane, C3H8.
When an alkane molecule undergoes a(n) dehydrogenation reaction, hydrogen atoms are removed.
The general formula for alkenes is given.
An alkyne is a hydrocarbon with a carbon-carbon triple bond.
CnH2n-2 is the general formula.
The location of a double or triple bond in the longest chain of an alkene or alkyne is indicated by the number of the lowest-number carbon atom involved.
Give an example of a hydrogenation reaction.
Liquid vegetable oil is likely to be converted to a solid.
Give the systematic name for each of the following.
Give the names and structures of the two examples.
There are two examples of monosubstituted benzenes that have special names.
The benzene ring is called the phenyl group when named as a substituent.
For an example of each type, give a structural formula.
Secondary alcohols have two alkyl groups attached, and tertiary alcohols have three alkyl groups.
The alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary.
The carbon atom where the --OH is attached has only one R group, so it's a primary alcohol.
The carbonyl group is found in both aldehydes and ketones.
The location of the carbonyl function is different between aldehydes and ketones, as the carbonyl group of the carbonyl group is bonded to a maximum of one other carbon atom.
An aldehyde and a ketone are produced by the oxidation of a primary alcohol and a secondary alcohol.
The properties of aldehydes and ketones are different enough that they are classified separately.
Draw the structures of the ketone and the aldehyde that have three carbon atoms without looking at the text.
An alternative name for the compound 2-butanone can be provided, as well as the groups attached to either side of the carbonyl carbon as alkyl groups, followed by the word.
The structure of the group characterizes organic acids.
The general formula for an organic acid is given.
Give an example.
Give a specific example of a reaction in which the name of the ester is derived from the compounds used to make it.
A(n) addition polymerization is a type of reaction in which the monomers add together to form a product.
An example of a condensation polymer can be given.
The Mother of Invention talks about the invention of Kevlar.
There are two different types of monomers that combine to create thepolymer chain.
Draw representations of the repeating unit in nylon and Dacron.
The first "organic" compound to be synthesised in the laboratory, rather than being isolated from nature, was prepared from.
A compound containing a double or triple bond is said to be unsaturated.
The general orientation of the four pairs of electrons is.
Straight-chain or normal alkanes are said to be in the case of carbon atoms forming a single unbranched chain.
Structural isomerism occurs when two molecules have the same number of atoms but have different arrangements of them.
The number of carbon atoms in the molecule is indicated by the root name of the saturated hydrocarbons.
The root name for the hydrocarbon is derived from the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.
The number of the carbon atom to which the substituents are attached is indicated by the positions of substituents along the hydrocarbon framework of a molecule.
The larger, heavier kerosene components can be broken down by heat into smaller, lighter gasoline fragments.
Tetraethyl lead was added to gasoline in the past as an antiknocking agent.
Alkanes have been used as a source of heat and light.
A substitution reaction occurs when a new atom replaces one or more hydrogen atoms of the alkane.
Alkenes and alkynes are characterized by their ability to undergo rapid, complete reactions by which other atoms attach themselves to the carbon atoms of the double or triple bond.
The process of hydrogenation can convert saturated fat to saturated fat.
Benzene is a member of the group of hydrocarbons.
A(n) functional group is an atom or group of atoms that impart new and characteristic properties to an organic molecule.
There is only one hydrocarbon group attached to the carbon atom in 105.A(n) alcohol.
The simplest alcohol is prepared by hydrogenation of carbon monoxide.
Ethanol is usually prepared by yeast.
The carbonyl group is found in both aldehydes and ketones, but they differ in where it occurs.
The corresponding alcohol can be used to prepareldehydes and ketones.
Which of the following is not an organic molecule?methanolacetoneacetic acidmagnesium sulfate.
The magnesium sulfate formula is organic.
The typically sweet-smelling compounds are the result of the condensation reaction of an organic acid with a(n).
Each of the following straight-chain alkanes has a structural formula.
A saturated hydrocarbon is one in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds, with each carbon atom forming bonds to four other atoms.
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
How many of the following organic functional groups have two oxygen atoms?
Each of the following compounds has a structural formula.
The type of product expected is indicated by the mixture of several similar products.
Each of the following aromatic compounds has a structural formula.
Draw the structures for five different types of hydrocarbons.
Structural formulas show the isomers of the straight-chain alkyne with eight carbon atoms.
Draw a structural formula for each of the following alcohols based on the functional groups listed in Table 20.5.
Indicate whether the alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary.
The general formula R--COO--R' is used for an ester and a carboxylic acid.
The general formula R--CO--R' is used for a ketone and an aldehyde.
An example of an organic acid and the molecule from which it is made.
The same type of assistance a student would get from an instructor can be found in these multiconcept problems.
sterification reactions can be carried out in the presence of a strong acid.
A carboxylic acid is warmed with alcohol and formed.
You might have made a fruity-smelling ester in the lab while studying organic functional groups.
The carboxylic acid that is necessary to complete the following reaction is named.