The European powers fought in the Seven Years' War.
The Seven Years' War can be called the first global war because it was fought on three continents.
The French and Indian War took place in the North American theater.
The British and their colonies fought an alliance of the French and their Native American allies.
The war was a disaster for the French.
They lost their Canadian territories in North America and their influence in India.
A series of laws was enacted by Britain to raise tax revenues from its North American colonies.
The British government felt they were justified in taxing the people because of the war.
American colonists resented being taxed by a government that didn't represent them.
The colonists wanted to govern themselves after railing against taxation without representation.
The British government retaliated against Massachusetts after the Boston Tea Party by passing the Intolerable Acts.
The formation of the First Continental Congress was caused by this.
The Continental Congress was involved in colonial resistance.
British and American troops clashed in Massachusetts in the 18th century.
The Declaration of Independence was written on July 4, 1776.
The British crown had a long list of abuses and it was declared that all men were created equal.
The British forces had many advantages, but they were at a disadvantage.
This was due to the war being fought on American soil and the foreign support the Americans received, most notably from France.
The British surrendered to George Washington in 1781.
The Seven Years' War is where the American Revolution began.
During the American Revolution, foreign support offered to the Continental Congress was used to undermine Great Britain.
The debt that France acquired in order to give aid to the United States would later be a major factor in the French Revolution.
The Peace of Paris officially recognized American independence in 1783.
The colonies created a federal republic with 13 states and a written constitution that guaranteed freedom of speech and religion.
Only white male property owners had full rights.
Women, landless men, slaves, and indigenous people didn't have access to this new freedom.
The U.S. Constitution was still an important step in the development of a republic responsible to its people through democratic means.
The French revolutionaries wanted to replace the monarchy and political structure with a more democratic republic.
It is important to understand the social structure of Revolutionary-era France in order to understand the French Revolution.
The society was divided into three classes.
The First Estate was the clergy, the Second Estate was the nobility, and the Third Estate was everyone else.
The third class was mostly led by the bourgeoisie, which is similar to the modern-day middle class.
The clergy and nobility were in charge of most of the political power.
The nobility's refusal to pay taxes, resentment of the monarchy's power, the incompetence of Louis XVI, and the success of the American Revolution inspired revolutionary sentiment among the Third Estate.
In May 1789, the Estates General convened for the first time since 1614.
From the beginning, there was a dispute over voting.
Each estate voted separately.
The result from each estate was weighted according to how they voted.
The Third Estate wanted all the estates to meet as one body and vote on a delegate head.
The Third Estate would be the driving force in politics.
The Third Estate, which claimed to represent the interests of all French people, declared the National Assembly.
The National Assembly began issuing reforms because of the peasants storming the Bastille, a fortress in Paris which symbolized the monarchy.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen included ending the privileged status of nobles.
The Declaration of Independence reflected Enlightenment-era political ideals.
The Assembly replaced the absolute monarchy with a limited monarchy.
The reforms weren't enough for French radicals and too much for conservative monarchists.
The radicals took control of the Assembly and beheaded the king.
The Committee for Public Safety was formed by the Jacobins and led by Robespierre.
Many people were executed, including dissidents and critics of the committee.
The Jacobins were deposed in the Thermidorian Reaction.
Napoleon Bonaparte was able to take advantage of the power vacuum.
He named himself First Consul, then Consul for Life, and finally Emperor.
The Civil Code was issued by Napoleon in the early 20th century to affirm the political and legal equality of all adult men, establish a merit-based society, and protect private property.
It allowed the newspapers to be censorship.
Napoleon's army quickly defeated the European powers and took control of much of the continent.
The wars of the Napoleonic era ranged from Europe to North Africa and the Middle East.
France was faced with many enemies.
The army did not survive the winter campaign and taking on Russia proved fatal.
The White Terror occurred in France because white was associated with royalists.
The Congress of Vienna in 1814 was where the powers which had defeated Napoleon met to set the terms for a new global balance of power.
The British Empire is the most powerful state in the international system.
The Pax Britannica period saw British power and influence spread to almost every corner of the globe.
Only the Russian Empire was able to compete with it.
The Anglo-Japanese Alliance and the "Great Game" in Central Asia were fought to contain Russian influence.
Anticlericalism is against religious authority.
It can be used to refer to opposition to any religious entity, but it is associated with opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.
There is a recurring theme of anticlericalism.
Consider how the relationship between government and religious institutions might affect anticlerical groups.
In Latin America, the colonies controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese were comprised of a governing class of 30,000 peninsulares, 3.5 million Creoles, and 10 million less-privileged classes.
The Roman Catholic Church formed a major social and political force in these colonies.
The authority of Spain and Portugal was weakened by Napoleon's invasion.
Argentina, Venezuela, and Mexico had revolts by 1810.
The Jamaica Letter is an important document in the history of Latin American independence movements.
It was written by the leader of the Creole people, Simon Bolivar, who advocated for a union of the former Spanish colonies in his native Venezuela.
The Jamaica Letter is very similar to the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
In Mexico, conservative Creole forces gained control of the peasant rebellion.
The Spanish armies were deposed by Simon Bolivar.
His goal was to establish a United States of Latin America, but it didn't last.
After Napoleon's invasion, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.
Pedro was left to rule as regent after the king returned.
Pedro declared Brazil independent after agreeing to the demands of Creoles.
The Creoles became the dominant class and many peninsulares returned to Europe.
Latin American society was economically and racially divided.