The universal acceptor of typeAB positive blood is A and B. Karl Landsteiner discovered the blood groups at the University of Vienna.
Rhesus monkeys first discovered the Rh blood group.
Most people don't have anti-Rh antibodies in their blood.
People who don't have the Rh antigen can develop anti-Rh antibodies if they are exposed to Rh+ blood.
This can happen after a blood donation or after a baby is born with Rh+.
The first exposure does not usually cause a reaction; however, at the second exposure, enough antibodies have built up in the blood to cause a reaction that causes agglutination and breakdown of red blood cells.
This reaction can be prevented with an injection.
Human red blood cells have either type A or B glycoproteins on their surface.
An immune response can be elicited by the glycoproteins in a person who receives a transfusion.
When injected into a person of any blood type, type O blood does not elicit an immune response.
The universal donor is O.
The universal acceptor is people with typeAB blood, who can accept blood from any blood type.
You can learn more about blood types by playing a blood typing game on the website.
The main arteries of the heart carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
The heart has to pump blood to the lungs or the rest of the body.
The lungs are close to the heart in some animals.
The muscle wall on the right side of the heart is not as thick as the left side because of the shorter distance to pump.
The cardiovascular system is divided into three circuits: the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit, and the coronary circuit.
Blood is pumped from the veins of the systemic circuit into the heart.
Blood enters the lungs and is oxygenated.
Blood from the left ventricle goes through the aorta to the rest of the body.
The coronary circuit is not shown.
There is blood in the vein.
The inferior vena cava has blood in it.
Blood must travel in the pulmonary and systemic circuits in order for the heart muscle to be asymmetrical.
The heart in humans is about the size of a clenched fist and divided into four chambers.
There are two heart valves on the right side and two on the left side.
The chambers that receive blood are the atria and the chambers that pump blood are the ventricles.
Deoxygenated blood from the heart itself is drained from the right atrium by the coronary sinus.
The mitral valve separates the chambers on the left side of the heart valve.
The right semilunar valves close when blood passes through the pulmonary arteries.
The lungs give the oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium.
The aortic semilunar valve closes when blood is pumped out of the left ventricle and into the aorta.
All mammals have a double circulation pattern.
Four chambers are separated by one-way valves.
The left ventricle is separated by the mitral valve.
The heart has its own blood vessels.
Without a steady supply of blood, the heart will die.
Because of the narrowness of the coronary arteries and their function in serving the heart itself, they can be deadly.
The heart pumps blood through the body in a repeating sequence called the cardiac cycle.
The human heart beats a lot.
Blood is forced through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles by the atria contract at the same time.
The atrioventricular valves produce a monosyllabic "lup" sound.
After a brief delay, the ventricles contract at the same time as they force blood through the semilunar valves into the aorta and the arteries that carry blood to the lungs.
The sound of a monosyllabic "dup" is produced when the semilunar valves are closed.
During a cardiac diastole, the heart is relaxed and blood flows into it.
The atria contract, pushing blood into the ventricles.
Atrial diastole causes the ventricles to contract, which causes blood to leave the heart.
The pumping of the heart is dependent on the function of the cardiomyocytes that make up the heart muscle.
They are selfstimulated for a period of time and isolated cardiomyocytes will beat if given the correct balance.
Striated muscle cells are found in cardiac tissue.
The beating of cardiac muscle cells is regulated by the heart's internal pacemaker, which uses electrical signals to time the beating of the heart.
The two atria contract in unison as electrical charges pulse from the SA node.
The pulse goes between the right and the left heart chambers and stops for a short time before moving to the walls of the ventricles.
The left and right bundle branches extend through the interventricular septum after the electrical impulse enters the bundle of His.
The Purkinje fibers conduct the impulse from the top of the heart up to the myocardium.
The pause allows the atria to empty before the ventricles.
The electrical impulses in the heart produce electrical currents that can be measured on the skin.
The characteristic reading of an electrocardiogram is caused by an electrical impulse that regulates the beating of the heart.
The sinoatrial valve is where the signal is initiated.
The atria contracts when the signal spreads to them.
The atria can relax before the ventricles contract if the signal is delayed at the atrioventricular node.
The last part of the cycle prepares the heart for the next beat.
You can see the heart's "pacemaker" at this site.
A network of blood vessels carry the blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
The main arteries are the aorta and major arteries.
The major arteries include the brachial arteries that take blood to the arms, the thoracic arteries that take blood to the thorax, and the carotid arteries that take blood to the brain.
The iliac arteries carry blood to the lower limbs.
The veins and arteries are shown.
Capillaries are narrow-diameter tubes that can fit red blood cells through in a single file and are the sites for the exchange of nutrients, waste, and oxygen with tissues at the cellular level.
The fluid crosses into the space from the capillaries.
The major veins take blood from the same parts of the body.
The fluid is brought back to the heart through the lymphatic system.
The different types of blood vessels have different structures.
The walls of blood vessels are made of three different layers.
The first tunic has a smooth inner lining of cells that are in contact with red blood cells.
The tunic of the heart is continuous.
The exchange site of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the red blood cells and the endothelial cells is located in the single layer of cells.
The middle tunic of veins and arteries is made of smooth muscle and the outer tunic is made of connective tissue.
The elastic tissue stretches and supports the blood vessels, and the smooth muscle layer helps regulate the flow of blood.
The arteries and veins have different densities of smooth muscle and tissue.
The veins are thinner walled as the pressure and rate of flow are lower.
Veins are different from arteries in that they have valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
The flow of blood back to the heart is aided by the contraction of skeletal muscle because veins have to work against gravity.