A new Western government and social order began to develop after the interaction of all three.
Conservatives talked about the virtues of tradition and community and the limits on people's ability to change the world.
Conservatives tried to uphold the traditional order by force, but eventually they turned from resisting change to trying to guide it.
They formed political parties to compete with liberals and nationalists.
The rulers reinvented themselves as leaders of social reform and national power in order to avoid revolution and outdo one another.
Middle-class business and professional people were often liberals.
The result would be a prosperous, harmonious, and efficient society if individuals were given equal chances, control over the actions of governments, and the maximum freedom to pursue their own interests.
Liberals put their faith in the British and American model of representative institutions, legally guaranteed rights and freedoms, and legally binding constitutions.
The English, the American, or the French people were always referred to as "the people" in the name of the revolutionaries and liberals.
The ideal of a united and independent nation-state spread to the Germans and Italians, who were divided into large and small nations.
Smaller nations living under imperial rule like the Poles, the Greeks, and European settlers in Latin America were appealed to by it to develop their national cultures and interests as they saw fit.
The Romantic movement rebelled against some aspects of the Enlightenment.
It valued community above individualism and above established rules.
Romantic thinker stressed the limits of reason and observation as ways of knowing the world, or they looked for a higher reason to be found in history or nature.
The drama of nature, the passions and torments of sensitive souls, the horrors of war, and the fleeting joys of youth were celebrated by writers, painters, and musicians.
Depending on whether they saw untamed human fancy and feeling as a hope for the future or an extinct tradition of the past, romantics might be liberals or conservatives.
If they believed in Christianity or the nation as the guardian of community traditions, they might be deeply religious or enthusiastically nationalist.
The dismantling of the old power struc ture began in the middle of the 19th century.
The legal privileges of nobles and clergy were abolished.
Germany and Italy were unified into powerful nation-states, as well as Latin American and eastern European empires, which laid claim to independence.
In almost every European country, rulers gave more or less power to the assembly.
Britain, the United States, and France were the original revolutionary countries.
The changes came about through turmoil of revolution and war as well as peaceful reforms.
The result was bitter social resentments and international power struggles due to liberalism and nationalism.
The United States and Britain have a generally accepted new power structure.
The shape of the future Western social, political, and international order was still uncertain.
It reflected the ideals of liberalism and nationalism.
The victorious powers were assembled at the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon was defeated.
The crowned heads of Europe and their chief ministers were trying to get the Continent back to what it was before the revolution.
Napoleon planted the seeds of a new order in Europe, and the Continent would never be the same again.
The chief minister of Austria was the leading spirit of the conference.
He was a career diplomat in the service of the Habsburg dynasty.
Napoleon arranged a marriage between himself and Maria Louisa, daughter of the Austrian emperor, at the height of his power.
After Napoleon's defeat in Russia, Metternich threw Austria's weight against him.
Austria came out of the wars in a victor's role, and Metternich persuaded the allies to hold the peace congress in Vienna.
The cunning of Metternich was matched by the cleverness of the Prince.
Tal leyrand was loyal to himself and to France.
He was Napoleon's foreign minister and served as a bishop under Louis XVI.
When it appeared that Napoleon's enemies abroad were getting too much help from the French emperor, Talleyrand prepared a place for himself in the postwar government.
When the emperor fell, he urged the victors to restore the Bourbon rulers in France.
He wanted to hold onto the territories it had before the revolution.
The allies accepted the principle of legitimacy.
The executed king's brother, King Louis XII, was the heir to the throne of France.
The Bourbon ruler was brought back to Paris in 1814 by the victors and they rewarded him with a foreign minister.
France was given a role in the settlement because of the differences between the four princi pal victors.
The main concern of the conference was to restore the legitimate holdings of rulers and the European balance of power.
In the course of the Vienna conference, Lord Castlereagh of Britain and Metternich of Prussia secretly pledged to go to war if Prussia and Russia went ahead with their plans to expand in central Europe.
The compromise plan was accepted after word of the agreement leaked.
The borders of Europe were not restored exactly as they had been before 1789, and territorial compensations were given to the states that had contributed the most to Napoleon's downfall.
Russia was allowed to take Finland from Sweden in exchange for Norway.
Those in central Europe were found to be the most unstable boundaries.
The final blow to the Holy Roman Empire was given in 1806 by Napoleon, who merged many of the smaller German states into a league of minor kingdoms known as the Confederation of the Rhine.
In order to prevent further wars and revolutions, the peacemakers tried to restore the old balance of power among European monarchies.
Prussia was larger than before in central Europe because there was a confederation that called itself German.
A new Germany, a new Europe, and new wars and revolutions are on the way.
This grouping was put together to prevent Prussian desire for dominance in Germany.
The effects of the French Revolution could not be completely erased by Metternich.
The legal, administrative, clerical, and educational reforms of the revolution were retained.
Beyond the borders of France, the ideas of liberalism could not be completely erased.
The rising sentiment of nationalism was strengthened by the revolution's stress on "fraternity" and by Napoleon.
The people of Germany and Italy were impressed by the power and accomplishments of the French nation-in-arms and the sense of national solidarity that came from resistance to the French conquerors.
The cause of national unity and independence was championed by patriotic societies across Europe.
Liberal and nationalist movements were kept down for the time being.
The rulers of multinational states agreed at Vienna to keep a close eye on the movements because they saw them as threats to their interests.
The Quadruple Alliance of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain would use diplomacy and force against moves to change boundaries.
Several conferences of those states under Metternich's guidance were called to meet threats to the established order.
The Metternich System provided a type of collective security for Europe until the middle of the 19th century.
Napoleon, who personified the triumph of the revolution, had fallen.
The ideals of the Enlightenment had been overshadowed by the realities of revolution, politics, and war, and victory had passed to the defenders of privilege and the old order.
The cost of trying to put the ideals into practice made many who sympathize with them recoil.
The liberals stood in opposition to the conservatives who stressed tradition and sentiment, aristocracy and authority.
Edmund Burke was one of the spokesmen of the conservative point of view.
He was against the underlying principles of the revolution from the beginning and feared that they would be unpopular in his homeland.
The doctrine of natural rights was Burke's first point of attack.
The revolutionary leaders used to justify their actions.
The liberties of the English people were slowly forged in the fire of history and were handed down from generation to generation.
The inheritance was not equal for everyone.
Burke expressed his belief in aristocracy and attacked attempts to interfere with legitimate privilege.
Burke warned against relying on human reason.
Each person's private stock of reason is small and therefore a poor guide to action.
He preferred the wisdom deposited in the general bank and capital of nations and ages.
Burke said it was arrogant for reform-minded people to try to reconstruct institutions out of their own minds.
He concluded that people should follow the "prejudices" that bind them to tried and tested institutions.
Burke was against the Lockean-Jeffersonian belief in the right and benefit of revolution.
He thought of individuals as part of a larger society.
The state was a divine creation, binding past, present, and future generations.
He said it was a partnership embracing all human purposes and not to be broken by individual human wills.
The state is sacred and must be viewed with awe and reverence.
It shouldn't be "hacked to pieces" by would-be innovators; such recklessness can lead to anarchy.
The absence of social control is ten thousand times worse than the government.
He held to the doctrine of original sin and rejected the Enlightenment faith in human goodness and progress.
He believed that the individual made decent is only made by strict social discipline.
People fall back to their beastlike behavior when they are not restrained.
According to Burke, revolution leads to intolerable chaos, which can only be ended by some form of dictatorship.
Burke didn't think that institutions should be frozen.
He thought in biological terms because of his view of society.
New shoots and branches should be allowed to grow.
He said that a resort to revolution would be permissible in a given society.
It shouldn't be a calculated action.
He gave his approval to irrational social action by placing his ultimate reliance on intuition.
The assault on Enlightenment beliefs was soon joined by other writers.
The idea of human perfectibility was attacked by the English clergyman Thomas Malthus.
Malthus found the reason for the misery of the poor to be the pressure of population growth.
Positive checks of starvation, disease, and war hold down population growth.
Malthus predicted continued suffering for the human race, seeing no way out of this condition.
Without a balance between food and people, the material foundation for happiness is missing.
Malthus called attention to the root problems of the modern world.
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were held responsible for the unhappy events of revolution and war in Europe.
Liberal writers and critics were distrusted after 1816.
The fear of new social upheavals caused the persecution of authors and the suppression of their works.
The restoration of the order concluded that the weakening of religious faith had made the way to social subversion easier.
They encouraged the revival of religious fervor that had arisen as a result of the revolution.
This renewal of piety, morality, and respect for authority was led by the Roman Catholic Church.
European philosophy was affected more by the reaction against thought from the 18th century.
The shift from the outlook of the Enlightenment to that of the nineteenth century was led by a German professor.
He was born in East Prussia and lived a long life, which included a period of science and rationalism.
His analytical mind and moral and religious sense gave his philosophy its special shape.
The rationalist spirit and methodology were retained.
He marked off areas of knowledge where religion and moral conviction applied and set limits on its use.
The skepticism of the Scottish philosopher David Hume awakened the limitations of reason and observation as means of knowing.
The idea of causality remains a suggestion of the mind, not a proven fact, despite the fact that this relationship in time and space may be witnessed over and over again.
"Perceived objects" are reflections of the mind according to Kant.
Locke believed that knowledge came from experience, received through the senses.
He said that our minds are independent of experience and that they impose their patterns on our perception.
The concept of time is mental and cannot be perceived.
Scientific knowledge is not knowledge of the real world but a creation of the human mind.
Science can't even ask questions that go beyond material things.
The existence of God, immortality of the soul, and moral responsibility are issues that science is silent on.
The University of Berlin became a center of philosophy in the 19th century, thanks to the work of another professor, Georg Friedrich Hegel, who was an energetic and imaginative man.
He tried to reconcile opposing tendencies in order to bring them into a unified system.
That approach was found in the historical method.
Hegel believed that true understanding of any subject can only be found through examining its historical development.
The idea may not be seen by most people before it takes shape.
Hegel reduced it to a minor role in history.
Great leaders, acting on their own purposes and passions, can still accomplish notable actions; political genius is identifying oneself with a developing idea.
Hegel would explain the greatness of Caesar, Jefferson, or Napoleon in this way.
Hegel's thought is related to that of Plato, with its Doctrine of ideas, and that of the Christian philosopher, who had also seen history as the unfolding of divine will.
The conflict of forces in history.
At successive stages of the struggle, he defined those forces as opposing ideas.
Hegel taught that the state was approaching perfect in the Prussian monarchy.
He viewed the history as leading to a freer and happier condition for humanity despite the fact that he discarded the idea of progress and reform as naive.
Hegel sees the development of ideas as the guiding force and the underlying reality of history, which makes him a philosopher like Plato.
He did not deny material existence, but he placed it in the reality of ideas and logic.
He put human reason in the place of the Reason of history.
Hegel said that history has its own solutions to problems that can only be understood dimly.
Hegel's thought was a blend of elements that had previously been seen as conflicting.
On the one hand, it assigned value to science, reason, and individual freedom, and on the other hand, it assigned faith, intuition, and authority.
Hegel's books provided support for a wide range of ideas and the comprehensive philosophy had a broad appeal.
His disciples branched off in many directions after he died.
The reaction against the Enlightenment showed itself in the arts, where it took on the name of Romanticism.
Some of the artists in the Romantic movement were political and social conservatives, while others were supporters of liberalism.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the pioneer of Romanticism and he had an impact on the French Revolution.
Rousseau's career was in part a revolt against his age.
Rousseau was a man of little formal education or personal discipline.
His attacks on rationalism struck home because of the power of his language and his appeal to inner experience.
He said that science shows people that they are better off without it.
Science is not needed for knowledge of virtue.
Rousseau's emotional outpourings were warmly received by readers who were unmoved by the theories of science and philosophy.
After the death of the hero, the two frustrated souls experience many temptations and torments.
The theme of passion and suffering, of morbid self-examination, became a mark of Romantic prose and poetry in the 19th century.
The hero of the novel wanders through a wilderness.
The author can use this opportunity to create eloquent word pictures of lakes, mountains, and flowers, which inspired such Romantic nature poets as William Wordsworth.
The "back to nature" movement of the 19th and 20th centuries was inspired by Rousseau's love of hiking and camping as ways of bringing one closer to nature.
Emile is cared for and taught in a way that is contrary to the educational practices of the 18th century.
Emile's teacher encourages him to learn for himself rather than forcing him into a series of studies.
The youngster asks for help in reading, writing, and nature studies when he needs it.
He lives a simple life in the country.
The teacher doesn't punish his student for destructive acts because he's confident that the errors will be corrected through the boy's own experience of loss.
Real vices are learned from "civilized" elders.
Rousseau believed that girls and boys deserved a good education.
He distinguished the male role from the female one.
To please men, be useful to them, make themselves loved and respected by them, educate them when they are young, counsel and console them, and make life agreeable and sweet to them.
All their studies should be of a practical sort because the search for abstract and speculative truths, principles, and scientific laws is beyond the capacity of women.
There is a lot of Rabelais.
Rabelais wrote playfully in his ideas about educational methods, but Rousseau wrote seriously.
He impressed a number of educational reformers and appealed to Romantic individualists.
Succeeding generations were influenced by Rousseau's religious sentiment.
He was a Romantic brand of Deism.
Emile was taught a simple faith in God and immortality.
Rousseau wrote that the deity and his commandments can be found in one's heart and in the study of nature.
Rousseau's insistence on the beauty of nature and unrestricted human emotion was echoed by the writers of the early 19th century.
It was perfect for the needs of Romantic writers who wanted to share their feelings with others.
Many leading novelists were also poets.
The excitement and meaning of wild nature is what William Wordsworth deals with in his most moving verse.
Wordsworth was able to see something beyond the colors and movements of the landscape.
He shared Rousseau's contempt for formal learning and his passion for nature because of his perception of nature.
There is more wisdom in it.
We murder to alter the forms of things.
Bring with you a heart that watches and receives, and close up those barren leaves.
Beauty, youth, and rebellion were themes of three other poets.
The ancient Greek ideal of beauty was saluted in a poem by John Keats.
"Beauty is truth, truth beauty", that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know, when old age shall this generation waste, Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than ours, a friend to man.
The Romantic quality of Lord Byron's writings correspond to his turbulent life of passion and adventure.
The Greek war for independence from the Turks took place in 1824 and he died at the age of thirty-six.
Men may be meant to save the old archer's shafts.
One of the people who voted for unrestricted personal freedom was the young friend ofByron's.
He was kicked out of Oxford University because of his open profession of atheism.
His most eloquent poems were composed in Italy.
At the age of thirty,Shelley drowned while sailing in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was the wife of Shelley.
She was a feminist and a Romantic writer.
Romantic writers often wrote about broader human experiences, even though they focused on horror, mystery, and death.
Sir Walter Scott's works made him a Scottish national hero, and he was one of the most popular prose writers in Britain.
He chose the Middle Ages and the border country between Scotland and England as the setting for many of his books.
Goethe was the leading literary figure in Germany.
He grew up during the Enlightenment and lived on into the age of Romanticism.
Goethe came from a well-to-do family of lawyers and administrators, and his conversion to Romanticism happened while he was studying law at Strasbourg.
He became a member of the court of Saxe-Weimar.
He spent most of his life in Weimar, the capital of the duchy, where the duke's generosity allowed him to study, travel, and write.
Goethe was a man of high intelligence and feeling.
He described a number of passionate love affairs in his writings.
Goethe's fascination with love, nature, and death is reflected in his poetry.
The Renaissance legend of Doctor Faust, who bargained his soul with the devil in return for youth and power, is told in Part One.
The second part of Faust was not published until after the author's death in 1832.
In Goethe's poem, the hero is saved because he loves God and humanity and tries to serve both.
Goethe's Faust is a literary model of a modern man who seeks to understand and experience the lowest and the highest.
Russian writers responded to the Romantic spirit in literature.
Russian literature was largely imitative of the French in the 18th century.
It became its own character in the 19th century.
Alexander Pushkin was the first Russian writer to command serious attention in western Europe with his Romantic poems, plays, and short stories.
His own short life was filled with Romantic passion and adventure, and he is still revered as the forefather of modern Russian literature.
The era of the elegant, frivolous Rococo style was in the 18th century.
The era of the Revolution saw the emergence of classicism, when French painters turned to ancient Roman and Greek sculpture for inspiration.
David, a middle-class man who sympathized with the political reforms of the period, was elected to the National Convention and helped abolish the royal Academy of Painting.
The academy was destroyed by the leaders of the revolution because it upheld the traditions of the aristocracy.
They established the Ecole des Beaux-Arts to impose the classical style on all French painters.
Under Napoleon, David reached the height of his influence.
The emperor wanted the art and architecture of his reign to be different from the Baroque and Rococo styles of earlier French rulers and thought classicism was suitable to his role as a "modern Caesar".
David was the first painter of the Empire and he made portraits of the emperor.
The Academy of Painting was restored after Napoleon's fall.
During the revolutionary era, a reaction against the values of the eighteenth century in the visual arts began, even though classicism remained influential in both art and architecture.
Romantic painters revolted against classicism, against official styles, and against academic rules of painting.
The brothers swore on their swords, held aloft by their father, to fight to the death as Roman champion against three brothers from a rival city who are their relatives by marriage.
JacquesLouis David contrasted the hard determination of the men with the soft and languishing women of the household, who were mourning the coming bloodshed.
The picture's message of manly patriotism above womanly family feeling the timelessness of a classical statue is reflected in the frozen figures.
Goya preferred the limits of classicism.
He didn't paint in the traditional way, which meant to ornament or glorify.
His portraits of Spanish royalty are proof of his honesty.
Goya was sensitive to the tyranny, civil strife, and poverty he saw in his native land because of his active social conscience.
David preferred to ignore the side of war Goya chose to dramatize.
After Napoleon's downfall, the Romantic style achieved its fullest expression in France.
Eugene Delacroix was the most brilliant.
After a classical education, he decided to become a painter and began his training in Paris, which is now the art center of Europe.
He was very enthusiastic about the new style.
A group of people are facing a firing squad.
In the foreground, we can see what will become of them as they are among the background figures.
The night sky, the buildings and hillside, and the line of soldiers prevent the viewer's eye from seeing the central scene.
In an era of revolutionary violence, Goya has found a new way to depict man's inhumanity to man.