Tycho Brahe made new and more comprehensive observations of the skies at the end of the 16th century.
The brilliant German mathematician Johannes Kepler analyzed them.
This gave him a positive result, and his finding was known as the First Law.
The data was studied to see if there was consistency in the motions.
The Second and Third Laws define how the speeds of planets vary according to their distance from the sun.
The first man to work in the manner of modern scientists was Kepler, who first formulated hypotheses and then tried to check the deduced consequences.
He demonstrated the consistency of mathematical relationships throughout the solar system in order to bridge the supposed gap between heavenly bodies and the earth.
He was the first to see the universe as a machine subject to laws.
The planets were described in mathematical terms, but he was not able to explain what made them move.
He assumed that the planets were being held in motion by some force.
He concluded that the force was the sun, based on the experiments of William Gilbert, an English physicist.
Gilbert built a spherical magnet around 1600 and noted that it had the same magnetic properties as the earth.
He thought that the heavenly bodies should look like the earth because they exert a pull towards their own center.
He said that the moon has a magnetic attraction to the earth.
Magnetic power is focused on the sun, the largest body in the solar system.
As it turned, it pulled the planets along in their path.
The modern concepts of universal gravitation and inertia were reached by the adoption of Gilbert's view.
The Italian genius Galileo Galilei was left to complete the overthrow of Aristotle, confirm the heliocentric theory, and bring the laws of motion to the point of a grand synthesis.
Galileo was more of an observer and experimenter than a mathematician.
He was the first to build a telescope that could be used to look at the heavens.
The lead tube of Galileo's telescope was about 3 feet long.
It revealed a world previously unknown to earthlings.
The surface of the moon was scarred with mountains and craters, and the planets were spherical bodies just like the earth, as if the earthly and heavenly zones of the universe, instead of being completely different, were.
Galileo's discovery of moons around Jupiter gave support to the idea that there could be more than one center.
He was overwhelmed by the distances revealed by his telescope as he peered into the depths of space.
He was convinced that millions of stars lay beyond when he saw them for the first time.
The closed universe of the Greek and Christian worlds was gone forever, and earth and humans were seen as wanderers through dark and boundless space.
The Catholic Church was quick to condemn Galileo's conclusions.
The new ideas were seen as a threat to Christian truth and salvation because they were linked to the Ptolemaic system.
He was charged with heresy and brought before the Roman Inquisition, who threatened him with torture.
The book was placed on the index along with other works.
The order of the heavens was not affected by the banning of a book.
Galileo was allowed to work in a villa near Florence after his imprisonment.
He turned to a subject that would not disturb the authorities but that would open the way to a new view of the universe.
The subject was moving.
It was clear that the overthrow of Aristotle's universe must include the rejection of his ideas about motion, but no one had yet shown how that would be done.
Galileo used to experiment with falling bodies.
He built structures to study the movement of polished balls.
When objects were dropped through the air, these allowed him to make more precise measurements of time and distance.
In 1638, he published the results of his experiments and set out his conclusions about mechanics.
He rejected the traditional beliefs that objects are normally in a state of rest, that there are natural directions of motion for certain substances, and that heavy objects fall faster than light ones.
His observations convinced him that a body in motion does not need a force to change direction or velocity.
He found that falling bodies accelerate as they descend, and described the rate at which they accelerate in mathematical terms.
Swift advances were taking place along the whole frontier of knowledge despite the fact that the most striking accomplishments of the Scientific Revolution were in astronomy and mechanics.
Two men stand out: Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.
A public official as well as a scholar, bacon was a man of wide interests.
The advancement of learning was his main concern.
He blamed the condition on excessive reverence for the ancients, as we have seen, for the authority of Aristotle.
By adding force to the intellectual revolution, bacon struck at the root of his system-- its methodology.
During the Renaissance, observation and experiment practices were favored by bacon.
He saw in the experiments the foundation for a planned structure of useful knowledge.
He viewed the use of deduction as a manipulation of words.
Repeated experiments would lead to a conclusion.
New observations and experiments would be carried out after each induction.
He thought that a total system of descriptive truth could be built up in a short time.
He was mistaken in many of his beliefs, but future experiments would correct them.
Scientists were urged to record their experiments and exchange data in the interest of mutual assistance.
The fault was fixed by the Frenchman Rene Descartes, even though he subordinated the role of mathematics in scientific activities.
Two modes of thought are needed for the advancement of science.
One of these is induction and the other is deduction.
Descartes was a brilliant mathematician, and his accomplishments in mathematics affected his approach to knowledge as a whole.
He was disgusted by the lack of certainty and precision that he found in most areas of study.
The method of mathematics requires one to start by questioning all present ideas and wiping the slate clean.
If an idea can be questioned, it must be discarded.
He set out to construct a complete picture of the universe by a series of logical steps.
Descartes made mistakes and fell short of success.
The old ways of looking at the world were undermined by his rejection of knowledge, intellectual authority, and traditional ways of reasoning.
The final statement of science in the 17th century was left to the man who created the new system of stars.
The rules of scientific method were established byNewton.
A simple country youth with rare talents won a place at a university.
After earning his degree, he became deeply absorbed in mathematics and developed the system of calculus, which is essential for the measurement of complex variable quantities.
He was appointed professor of mathematics at the university while he was still in his twenties.
He was curious about the puzzles posed by the new astronomy.
Galileo did not demonstrate how the principles of earthly motion applied to bodies beyond the earth.
Galileo thought that curved motion was the same as straight-line motion and had its own inertia.
Galileo didn't leap to the idea of universal gravitation because he recognized and gauged the earth's gravity.
Newton suspected that the relationship between inertia and gravitation was the key to understanding planetary motion.
He had to translate his theories into mathematical terms.
He was able to calculate the mass of the sun, the planets and their satellites.
He was able to calculate how the sun's pull must decrease with distance so as to cause the planets to move in their orbits according to the laws of the universe.
He applied this formula to the moon's motion.
He thought that the moon was due to a continuous "falling" toward the earth.
He concluded that the moon behaves in the same way as falling bodies on earth after taking into account its distance from the earth.
The existence of universal laws was established by empirical and mathematical proof with the link between Galileo and Kepler.
He showed that human beings have the ability to achieve far greater understanding by unraveling the mysteries of planetary motion.
Rules of scientific reasoning were set down byNewton to help others find the fundamental principles embodied in nature.
Nature and nature's laws were hidden in the night.
The ideas of matter and motion have been modified by physicists.
His methodological principles are still a model.
The growth of knowledge has been one of the stories of science.
InNewton's time, discovery was going on in many fields, and findings in one subject suggested and aided investigations in others.
Robert Boyle fathered chemistry by identifying physical elements.
The function of the heart and the circulation of the blood was explained by William Harvey.
The authority of the Greek physician, who had ruled for centuries, fell as medicine and pharmacy achieved a scientific foundation.
The development of the microscope as well as the telescope opened promising new areas of exploration.
The microscope made it clear that the universe is half the size of the stars and the other half the size of the particles of matter.
The idea of a laboratory where experiments could be conducted under controlled conditions took shape by the end of the 17th century.
The universities were slow to promote the new learning.
They were hostile to science despite being in the grip of religious and humanist traditions.
Two centuries were to pass before the "classical" curriculum was used in the education of young men.
New institutions had to be created for the support and coordination of experimental studies in order to make room for scientific subjects.
Italy was the birthplace of the earliest societies for research advancement.
The Medici established a scientific institution in Florence a half century after Rome set up an academy for Galileo.
The Royal Society of London was founded in 1662.
Scientists and mathematicians were included as well as merchants, nobles and clerics.
The society aided experiments, listened to learned discussions, and published a scientific journal to support the idea of a total system of knowledge.
The isolated, casual experimenter of the Renaissance had given way to a new type.
The Royal Society was interested in practical applications of science as well as pure research.
The true goal of science was to give human beings greater power for the benefit of them.
He pointed out that traditional philosophy had no practical advantage.
Science would raise people's standard of living.
The emphasis on practical applications was supported by commerce, government and England.
The French Academy of Science was endowed in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of his finance minister, Colbert.
The search for understanding nature and technology began to experience a mutual attraction, though the actual marriage of the two had to wait until the 19th century.
The general ideas, values, and attitudes of society changed as a result of the revolution within science.
The forces that move the universe were given a new view by science.
Their way of looking at life came from their underlying beliefs about the nature of the universe, so they created a new philosophy and a new society.
The new scientific vision of the universe, as well as the philosophical ideas derived from it, took a long time to reach the general population.
Many of the educated did not accept the new views, and some of them actively opposed them because they conflicted with religious teachings.
Even opponents were affected by the change.
In the long run, a new intellectual climate in Europe in the 18th century affected all classes and spread to the ends of the earth.
The new way of looking at life that took shape during this era had little to do with the scientists.
Philosophers who are professionally trained did not play a significant role.
The work of "literary" persons was the main reason for the shift in thinking.
The people who saw the new vision of the universe were eager to spread the light to others.
The universe held up to view was vastly different from the traditional Christian one.
The new universe extended through a lot of space.
The Christian felt that humanity was no longer at the center of nature's plan.
Humans appeared insignificant in both time and space because of the architecture of the universe.
The evidence of astronomy did not support such a faith.
Other supports for traditional beliefs fell apart.
No role remained for a Prime Mover after the laws of motion were overthrown.
Universal gravitation has replaced the hand of God that used to keep the heavenly bodies in their orbits.
There was no place for miracles in the system.
The mathematical and mechanical laws of the universe made it possible for it to run itself forever.
People have been familiar with watch and clock machines.
Scientists knew enough to sketch the nature of the whole, even though not all its rules of operation had been discovered.
Questions about religious convictions were raised by the "enlightened" concept of the universe.
To fit Christian teachings and practices into the new cosmology was very difficult for scientists and intellectuals.
They believed that they could not reconcile Christianity with scientific truth.
They did not give up the idea of God.
The First Cause is not mechanical and God formed matter in the way he wanted, according toNewton.
It was logical for those in scientific circles to believe that he had established the governing rules of the universe.
Having designed the watch, built it, and wound it up, God left it to run on its own.
This was not a religion of Christianity, Judaism or any other system of belief and worship.
Lord Herbert of Cherbury tried to make a universal faith that would encompass and surmount all the others.
The existence of a Supreme Power, the necessity of worship, the benefit of repentance of vices, and the existence of rewards and punishments after death are all common to the religions of the world.
The efforts of Lord Herbert did not bring all believers together.
He had a dream of an end to sectarian bloodshed.
For most churchgoers, Deism was an inadequate substitute for traditional religion.
It didn't have mystery, ritual, emotional appeal, or discipline.
It was offensive to the clergy of all denominations because it challenged their authority.
The converts of science lost their appeal to deism.
Many of them decided by the close of the 18th century that there was no need for a Creator.
Motion is as natural as non motion.
The universe and its motion had always been there.
Since Rome's conversion to Christianity, religious doubt has become a force in Western civilization.
Many of the educated did not agree with the idea that science and Christianity did not agree.
Newton was a believer who hoped his discoveries would confirm the wonders of the Almighty.
In order to achieve the traditional Protestant goal of proving that the Catholic Church was a perversion of true Christianity, he divided his time between scientific and deep study of the Bible.
The way of life of most people in Europe is influenced by the churches and synagogues.
The age of the Enlightenment was also a time of religious revival.
Many thousands of men and women in different faiths formed religious mass movements because of the preaching of beloved leaders.
Among the Jews of Poland, there was the Hasidic rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, as well as the Redemptorist father Alfonso Liguori.
All three had the same ability to understand the traditional beliefs of their religions in ways that made sense to ordinary believers.
All of them had a permanent effect on their faiths through the work of their followers.
As proof of theNewtonian system continued to accumulate, reli gious leaders had no choice but to make peace with the results of scientific discovery.
They rejected the idea that the new view of the universe made Christianity harder to believe in.
Many religious leaders, and educated believers in general, could more or less accept Enlightenment ideas of religious toleration, more widespread education, or the use of scientific knowledge to improve the condition of the human race.
The ideas of the Enlightenment spread beyond the small circles of the philosophers to become part of the general climate of opinion in Europe.
After recovering from the initial shock ofNewton's astronomy, humans became more important as God's role declined.
Writers began to emphasize the grandeur of reason, which allowed human beings to reveal the mysteries of the universe.
Humans could not control its movements, but they had touched the universe with their thoughts.
They could improve their well-being through science and technology.
Human beings might be seen as better than they are.
They blamed bad social institutions for the existence of evil in human affairs.
Nature is orderly and harmonious.
Humans have failed to follow nature's ways and have made customs, laws, sanctions, and beliefs that have hurt the individual.
When the chains of unreason were broken, humans would regain their right to be.
The optimism about human prospects had its roots in the Renaissance and was strengthened by the new science.
The doctrine of original sin was out of place in the new universe, and the observed laws of motion showed no movement in the direction of evil.
It seemed likely that people would choose good over bad as long as they followed nature and reason.
As knowledge advanced, they held, individuals would become increasingly capable of good, and when they reached complete harmony with nature, they would be judged perfect.
They concluded that humans are both good and perfect.
The doc trine of human perfectibility was the most controversial doctrine of the eighteenth century.
It runs counter to traditional Christian teaching and is hard to reconcile.
The ablest thinker in the group did not accept the extreme view, but they joined with others to work for social improvement.
They became reformers who wanted to remake social institutions according to reason.
The humanitarian movement was a product of thought from the 18th century.
The marquis de Beccaria in Italy worked for more effective ways of dealing with crime.
The reformers focused attention on helping the poor, the orphan, the enslaved, and the sick, and they were supported by traditional Christians acting in the spirit of holy charity.
Broad freedom of expression, tolerance, and a cosmopolitan outlook were all achieved by the philosophes.
The humanitarian and ethical goals of Christianity were similar to those of the Enlightenment.
The philosophy of the Enlightenment sprang from the new method and vision of science.
Nature was more likely to be hostile than friendly to the ancient Greeks and the Christians.
Nature had been shown to be regular and knowable to some Enlightenment thinkers.
The farmer could make the soil more productive by observing and following physical laws, because they believed that the secrets of nature could be discovered and applied usefully to ordinary affairs.
Legislators and judges could provide justice by applying moral and social "laws" to human relations.
There was a confusion of moral principles with physical laws.
The "cult of nature" was an outgrowth of excessive enthusi asm.
Enthusiasm for the harmonious motions of the heavenly bodies led some philosophers to an unscientific, sentimental attitude toward all objects in nature.
The extension of useful knowledge through the exercise of reason was the central idea of most eighteenth-century intellectuals.
The most exciting discovery of the age was that nature behaves in a reasoned, even mathematical, way.
Reason is the key to nature's secrets and powers and is the proper means of judging and regulating human affairs, concluded the philosophers.
John Locke provided an acceptable model for explaining the working of the mind.
Locke followed the guide of common sense rather than a strict methodology.
He studied medicine, economics, political theory, and philosophy, and he was associated with many of the leading political figures in his country.
Perhaps because of his familiarity with practical affairs, his writings were readily received by the educated public, and several generations of hardheaded revolutionaries found reassuring arguments in his political writings.
His ideas about the nature of human knowledge were persuasive, for he rested his case on the ordinary sense experience of his readers.
Locke was not scientific and may not have been profound.
His writings showed what a new reason could do when it was applied to questions about human beings and society.
This was in line with the beliefs of Christianity and challenged the idea that knowledge is inborn.
The knowledge that comes to us through our senses and is then sorted and arranged by our minds is the source of the ideas that come to be written on this paper.
We learn to understand and control the world around us.
Locke says that ideas are dependent on outside stimuli.
The individual will only receive the right ideas if the correct environment is provided.
This suggests that through the reform of institutions, rapid improvements can be made.