There are many explanations and examples of federalism.
The student is asked to realize that federalism deals with a division of power.
Choice B's use of the phrase "separation of powers" is misleading and choice C's use of the phrase "division of power" is incorrect.
One of the answers provides the solution to the question because choices B and D are not the same.
The answer provides a weak argument for a strong federal system because the advocate of a strong federal system wouldn't want to concede that local leaders are more capable than national leaders.
The issue of the roles states play is raised in the Federalist Papers, but local governments will still have the power to make their own decisions.
The "necessary and proper" clause is given the authority by the implied power.
The constitutional basis of dual federalism is provided by the Tenth Amendment.
You should be able to make health and welfare a reserve power of the states using the elimination process.
You should know that choices A, C, D, and E are reserve powers of the state.
The interstate commerce clause gives you a clue as to what power it has.
If you want to eliminate obviously wrong answers, you should use a strategy.
You can eliminate marble cake federalism easily because they are synonymous with cooperative federalism.
Fiscal federalism and creative federalism took place during the Johnson and Nixon presidencies.
The relationship was an earlier form of federalism.
Choices A, B, C, and E show the responsibilities of the federal and state governments.
Fiscal federalism is related to competitive grants even though there are fiscal components in the other choices.
The states are responsible for paying for the service provided by the government.
Both presidents wanted to downsize the federal government.
They believed it was necessary to increase the defense budget.
If you believe that a decrease in the defense budget was a characteristic of the new federalism approach, it will be hard to answer this question.
A number of federal programs would be turned over to the states.
Reagan believed that the centralization of power in Washington had made government too expensive and removed it from popular control.
He proposed transferring responsibility for more than 40 health, education, welfare, and transportation programs to the states by 1988.
The federal government would take responsibility for the Medicaid program and give it to the states until 1991.
Reagan's plan was criticized because it meant that state control would mean reduced benefits for the poor, and the state governments themselves seemed reluctant to take on the burdens it entailed.
The lower levels of government were told by Congress to pay for the new programs.
There were 27 major statutes passed by Congress in the 1980s.
Federal bureaucrats issued thousands of pages of directives to accompany each piece of regulatory legislation, such as the Clean Water Act.
Regulations imposed on the local governments between 1983 and 1990 cost up to $12.7 billion according to the Congressional Budget Office.
State and local governments waste money when they are forced to use money to work on projects that are not pressing issues.
In 1991, the city of Chicago spent at least $160 million on unfunded mandates, according to the mayor.
Reagan's new federalism is related to the passage of the Unfunded Mandates Law.
Welfare reform was set in motion by the Republicans' Contract with America.
The guiding principle of poverty and food programs was eliminated by the proposed Welfare Bill.
The food stamp provisions, which would replace food stamps and child nutrition programs with a lump-sum payment to each state, were vetoed by President Clinton because he believed they were too extreme.
The Welfare Bill, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, was signed into law by President Clinton during the closing days of the 104th Congress.
The law required welfare recipients to find work after two years if they were to make a transition to work.
The Aid to Dependent Children funds would be replaced by block grants, which would help support families during the transition into jobs.
The term limit for welfare payments was five years.
Uniform child support laws, a live at home and stay in school requirement for unmarried minor parents, and educational and training activities are included in the provisions.
Poor children, the disabled, pregnant women, the elderly, and people on welfare were guaranteed healthcare by the law.
The law was about moving people into jobs.
Welfare benefits were denied to legal immigrants.
The new Congress was promised that it would amend the law to make it easier to meet this requirement.
The definition of new federalism is earned one point.
Federally administered programs are being turned over to the states.
The term devolution would be acceptable in defining what new federalism's goal is.
A description of how new federalism changed the relationship between the states and the federal government earns one point.
He proposed transferring health, education, welfare, and transportation programs to the states using Reagan's actions as an example.
Actions of other presidents turning over federal programs to the states are acceptable.
The goals of new federalism have been accomplished by two policies by Congress.
The scope of monetary provisions that Congress could impose on the states was limited by the Unfunded Mandates Act of 1994.
The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 gave the states the responsibility of making welfare a transition to work.
The Americans with Disabilities Act is also acceptable.