The League of Nations was opposed by the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee because he claimed it would involve sending US troops to foreign conflicts without Senate approval.
Lodge presented a resolution on the Senate floor on March 3, 1919 that proposed the League of Nations.
Thirty-seven Republicans endorsed his resolution, which was enough to block Wilson's treaty.
President Wilson had a lever age with the British and French.
A potent virus and a strain of overwork weakened Wilson.
European colleagues maneuvered him into concessions that mocked his ideals when he returned to Paris in 1919.
Wilson agreed to the French demands that Germany transfer territory to France on the west and to Poland on the east and north.
Wilson had to abandon his principle of national self- determination.
The statesmen at Versailles were able to allow for some degree of ethnic self- determination in multiethnic regions.
They created Austria, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia in Central Europe and four new nations along the Baltic Sea.
The victorious Allies did not create independent nations out of the colonies of the defeated European empires.
Japan took control of the former German colonies in the Pacific while France and Great Britain took over the former German colonies in Africa and the Middle East.
The issue of payments to the victors triggered bitter arguments.
The British and the French wanted Germany to pay the entire cost of the war, and they also wanted their military veterans' pensions to be paid by Germany.
Wilson made perhaps his most fateful concessions on this point.
He eventually agreed to a crucial clause that forced Germany to accept responsibility for the war, despite initial opposition.
The "war guilt" clause offended Germans so much that it became a factor in the rise of the Nazi party.
Wilson admitted that he would refuse to sign the treaty if he were a German.
The treaty was presented to the German delegates by the victorious powers on May 7, 1919.
They noted that Germany would lose 13 percent of its territory, 10 percent of its population, and all of its colonies in Asia and Africa.
When the Germans still refused, the French threatened to launch a new military attack.
The treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, the magnificent palace built by King Louis XIV in the late seven teenth century.
Five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, it was signed.
When he heard of the treaty's provisions, Hitler promised a terrible and pitiless revenge.
In 1922, he screamed "it cannot be that two million Germans have fallen in vain" during a speech.
On July 8, 1919, Wilson returned to Washington, D.C. to try to get the Senate to approve the treaty.
One of the most bitter and partisan disputes in history began after that.
On July 10, Wilson called on both parties to approve the treaty.
The Senate Republicans decided that the League of Nations was a reckless threat to America's independence.
Lodge wanted to delay a vote on the treaty in order to grow the public opposition.
He had to read the text of the treaty aloud to the Foreign Relations Committee.
He organized a parade of experts who opposed the treaty to testify at the hearings.
Fourteen Republicans and two Democrats in the Senate refused to support membership in the league.
They were mostly western and midwestern isolationists who were worried that foreign commitments would threaten domestic reforms.
Lodge was owned by a larger group called the "reservationists," who insisted on limiting American participation in the League of Nations in exchange for approving the rest of the treaty.
The only way to get Senate approval was for Wilson to agree to revisions, the most important of which was the requirement that Congress authorize any American participation in a league- approved war.
It was the last time the two men would see each other.
Wilson was not able to compromise.
Wilson decided to take his case directly to the voters in September 1919 after a summer of pointless debate.
On September 2, he left Washington for a 10,000-mile tour through the Midwest and the West Coast despite doctor's orders and the advice of his wife and aides.
He was going to deliver nearly 100 speeches on behalf of the treaty.
It was the first time that a president had made such an effort to win public support.
He was welcomed by large crowds in Columbus, Kansas City, Des Moines, and Omaha.
Wilson said that he had returned from Paris with one of the greatest documents of human history, which was in danger of being rejected by the Senate.
He said he would fight for a cause.
The government is less than it is.
Wilson spoke as many as four times a day despite his headaches.
He was tired by the time he reached Washington.
He continued through Oregon and California.
In Los Angeles, 200,000 people greeted him.
Wilson suffered from severe headaches after delivering an emotional speech in Colorado.
His left side was immobile and one side of his face was limp.
He sighed and said he seemed to have gone to pieces.
The presidential train went back to Washington, D.C.
The president had a stroke a week later that left him partially blind and paralyzed on his left side.
Wilson was visited in the White House by Ray Stannard Baker.
The president had become a broken, ruined old man, shuffling along with his left arm in the air, the fin gers drawn up like a claw, the left side of his face was sagging frightfully.
The pres ident lay in bed for five months in the autumn of 1919 and early 1920.
The president's aides were urged by the Secretary of State to appoint Vice President Thomas Marshall in his place.
Wilson took over soon after.
Wilson began displaying signs of para noia as he became emotional.
The president was bitter and brooding, full of self- pity and anger.
Wilson's wife, aides and trusted cabinet members kept him away from the most important business for the last seventeen months of his second term.
It was rare to have humor like that.
President Wilson's arteries seemed to have hardened.
Fourteen changes were made in the draft of the Treaty of Versailles.
House asked Wilson to negotiate a compromise.
The First Lady did not want her husband to know about her concerns.
Wilson rejected any changes to the treaty.
Lodge's revised treaty was approved by the Senate in a final vote of 39 in favor and 55 against.
On the question of approving the original treaty without changes, the irrecon cilables and the reservationists, led by Lodge, combined to defeat ratification.
Wilson's attempt at global peacemaking failed.
Congress tried to end the war with a joint resolution on May 20, 1920, but Wilson vetoed it.
It was not until July 2, 1921, four months after he left office, that another official ended the state of war with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
On October 18, 1921, peace treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary were signed.
By that time, Warren G. Harding was president.
The failure of the U.S. to approve the Versailles Treaty was a turning point in world history that led to a second world war twenty years later.
The United States did not join the League of Nations.
A dangerous power vacuum would emerge in Europe because Great Britain and France were too exhausted and timid to keep Germany isolated.
In America, celebrations over the war's end gave way to widespread inflation, unemployment, labor unrest, socialist and Communist radicalism, race riots, terrorist bombings, and government tyranny.
With millions of ser vicemen returning to civilian life, war- related industries shutting down, and wartime price controls ending, unemployment and prices for consumer goods spiked.
President Wilson was bedridden by his stroke.
He had never been so unpopular, his administration was in disarray, and the Democratic party was not doing well.
Many Americans confronted an infectious enemy that produced far more casualties than the war.
Although it did not originate in Spain, it became known as the "Spanish" influenza, a new and deadly strain of the virus that swept across the globe within months.
The disease spread quickly to Europe with the help of the U.S. troops.
The pan demic stretched from Algeria to New Zealand.
Between 50 million and 100 million people were killed in the initial outbreak, far more than in the Great War.
In the United States alone, it killed 670,000 people, more than the number of U.S. combat deaths in France.
The public health system was not able to keep up with demand.
Hospitals and funeral homes ran out of staff.
The population was seized by fear.
People ignored pleas for hospital volunteers for fear that they would become infectious themselves.
"We were almost afraid to breathe in North Carolina," Dan said.
People were afraid to leave their home because of the fear.
Office workers wore masks during the Spanish flu epidemic.
The epidemic had ended by the spring of 1919.
There was an outbreak in the winter of 1920.
No disease in human history had killed so many in such a short time.
The first outbreak of the Spanish flu gave women a constitutional guarantee of their right to vote.
The amendment was approved in dramatic fashion by the legislature of Tennessee.
The outcome was uncertain as thousands of supporters and opponents gathered in the state capital.
The initial vote was not unanimous.
Harry T. Burn changed his vote to yes at the insistence of his mother.
She told her son to vote and to be a good boy.
The achievement of women's speach was a part of the Progressive Era.
In the 1920 presidential election, 40 percent of the electorate was made up of women.
The women's workers, who were released from the con- suffragist leader, are talking on the phone at their desk.
20 percent of the workforce participated in 3,600 strikes in 1919.
Critics linked higher wages and shorter workweeks to the worldwide Communist movement, but most wanted nothing more than that.
The charges of a Communist conspiracy were overstated.
In 1919, the Communist party had fewer than 70,000 members.
Police went on strike in Boston in 1919.
Calvin Coolidge was the governor of Massachusetts.
After four days of looters panicked the city, Coolidge ordered that they all be fired.
The end of the Great War gave hope to African Americans.
Others were not sure.
Seligmann's greatest fear was realized.
There was a wave of racist assaults after the war ended.
As more and more African Americans, including many of the war veterans, developed successful careers and asserted their civil rights, resentful whites reacted with almost hysterical brutality.
In 1919, seventy-six black people, including nine military veterans, were killed by southern whites.
An African American family is escorted by a police officer as they move their belongings out of their home and into a protected area of Chicago.
In Washington, D.C., white mobs and gangs of rioters fought a race war in the streets after false reports of black assaults on white women.
In Chicago in late July, 38 people were killed and 537 were injured in five days of rioting, which was caused by tensions with local whites over jobs and housing.
Black workers who were hired as strikebreakers were resented by white unionized workers.
In 1919, twenty five race riots erupted, and eighty African Americans were lynched.
The White House did not reply.
The riots were a turning point in the life of many African Americans.
A black veteran told Carl Sandburg that they made the supreme sacrifice.
Many blamed the riots on communists.
"Bolshevist" was warned.
With so many people convinced that the strikes and riots were inspired by communists and anarchists, a New York journalist reported that Americans were more scared of Bolshevism.
It was caused by the actions of a few people.
The Secret Service discovered a plot to kill President Wilson in early 1919.
In 1919, postal workers found nearly forty homemade mail bombs.
A mail bomb blew off the hands of a Georgia senator's maid.
Carlo Valdinoci, an Italian anarchist, blew up Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's home in Washington, D.C. in June of 1914.
The bomb exploded when Valdinoci tripped and fell.
Franklin Roosevelt was walking with his wife Eleanor when the bomb exploded.
The blast knocked neigh bors out of their beds.
The Roosevelts' front steps were where the col arbone landed.
The nation's first suicide bomber was Valdinoci.
Attorney General Palmer was transformed by the bombing.
The General Intelligence Division of the Justice Department was created in August 1919 to collect information on radicals.
The American Protective League was founded during the war to root out "traitors" and labor radicals, and Hoover and others in the Justice Department worked with a network of 250,000 people in 600 cities.