Racist influences on American culture and American politics have been central to American politics.
The issue of race has torn those with power in America.
Although some early politicians were against slavery, they were not willing to offend their southern colleagues by taking an antislavery stand.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which banned slavery in the northwestern territories, allowed fugitive slaves to be seized and returned to their owners.
The need to compromise and bargain can cause people to excuse the inexcusable for political gain.
The revival of white supremacy in southern and border states led to acts of terror.
There were 3,437 lynchings of African Americans between 1882 and 1951.
At the time of the Civil War, there were four million slaves in the American South and half a million free blacks in the rest of the country.
Blacks as a rule did not have full rights of citizenship.
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made life difficult for free blacks.
When national institutions seemed unwilling to end slavery, a coalition of free blacks and northern whites tried other strategies.
In order to get the Republican Party to take a stand on political equality, the movement persuaded three state legislatures to hold referenda on black suffragists.
The votes were lost by large margins.
On the eve of the Civil War, public opinion was against the rights of blacks.
The causes of the Civil War can't be covered here because they took place apart from April 1861 to May 1865.
The war was not fought over the moral evil of slavery.
Slavery was a political and economic issue.
The southern economy depended on slavery, and when President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, he was not simply taking a moral stand.
He was trying to keep the country intact.
The American Civil War did not free all slaves, only those in states that were against the Union.
Neither world war in the twentieth century would claim as many American casualties as the war did.
The costs of the war would continue to be paid after the Union was restored.
After Lincoln's assassination in 1865, the northern Republicans were in control of both the House and the Senate, but Andrew Johnson, a Democrat from Tennessee who was sympathetic toward the South, was able to stop their will.
Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment in January 1865.
It was a huge blow to the power of the south.
Black codes were legislated by the southern white state governments to ensure that their political and social dominance of southern society would continue.
Congress, led by northern Republicans, tried to check southern obstruction in 1865 by instituting a period of federal control of southern politics called Reconstruction.
The Fourteenth Amendment was passed to ensure that no state could take away the rights of people who were born in the United States.
The original intent of the amendment was to bring some semblance of civil rights to southern blacks.
The right to vote for all adult males was granted by the Fifteenth Amendment.
Life in the south began to change under northern supervision.
Blacks voted and were elected to some local posts.
Southern whites responded with violence.
Blacks in the South were terrified by groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
It's a risky business to claim one's rights or be associated with Republicans.
Reconstruction ended in 1876 because of political problems in the North and the resurgence of white power in the South.
The business of stripping blacks of their political power was set in motion by southern whites.
Disparaging blacks was easy to accomplish without the intervention of the northern Republicans.
Under the Fifteenth Amendment, the vote could not be denied on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, so the Democrats, who now controlled the southern state governments, set out to deny it on other, legal,, which required the payment of a small tax African Americans who were literate were not allowed to vote because the test was administered unfairly.
To allow voters whose grandfathers were not allowed to vote before 1867.
The letter of the Fifteenth Amendment never explicitly said that they were denying blacks the right to vote because of their race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
By 1910, registration of black voters had dropped dramatically, and the registration of poor, uneducated whites had fallen, as a result of this strategy.
The South has separate facilities for blacks and whites for leisure, business, travel, education, and other activities since the 1900s.
The Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 because it did not guarantee full and equal accommodations for everyone.
The facilities for whites were better than those for blacks.
Blacks questioned why equal protection of the law shouldn't translate into real equality in their lives.