In the areas and Britain, Napoleon abolished feudal dues and serf- British economy and military.
He had to put the interests of France first in order to protect his power base.
Napoleon was seen as a conquering tyrant rather than an enlightened liberator because of the heavy taxes he levied.
The growth of nationalism was encouraged by French rule.
There was a great revolt in Spain.
Napoleon's attempt to make Spain a French colony was opposed by a coalition of Catholics, monarchists, and patriots.
Spanish master Francisco Goya created a passionate and moving indictment of the brutality of war in this painting from 1814, which depicts the close-range execution of Spanish rebels by Napoleon's forces in May 1808.
Many Europeans suffered through Napoleon's invasions and Goya's painting evoked their despair.
Napoleon allied with every major European power except Britain at the height of the Grand Empire.
Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812 because he was angered by the Russian repudiation of his ban on trade with Britain.
Map 17.2 shows the division of Europe in 1715.
The events in Spain made it clear that the resistance was growing.
Napoleon pushed on.
The Continental System was a failure by 1810.
The system provoked Britain to set up a counter-blockade, which caused hard times for French artisans and the middle class.
Alexander I of Russia openly repudiated Napoleon's war of prohibitions against British goods.
Napoleon's invasion of Russia began in 1812.
If Alexander did not file for peace, he was going to winter in the Russian city of Smolensk.
Napoleon pressed on toward Moscow after reaching Smolensk.
The Russians retreated in good order after the Battle ofBorodino.
Alexander fused to negotiate after he ordered the Russians to leave Moscow.
Napoleon ordered a retreat after five weeks in the abandoned city.
Napoleon went to Paris to raise another army.
Austria and Prussia deserted Napoleon and joined Russia and Britain.
Napoleon abdicated his throne less than a month later.
Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Italy after this un conditional abdication.
Napoleon escaped from Elba in February of 1816.
He marched on Paris after issuing appeals for support.
French officers and soldiers who had fought so long for their emperor responded to the call and once more Napoleon took command.
The third chapter of the revolutionary era in the Atlantic world is the events that led to the creation of Haiti.
Prior to 1789, the French colony of Saint-Domingue had a system of slave-based plantation agriculture.
White planters, free people of color, and slaves were in a daze after the news of the revolution in France.
While revo lutionary authorities debated how far to extend the rights of man on Saint-Domingue, slaves took matters into their own hands.
Haiti became the first nation in history to claim its freedom through a slave revolt.
Saint-Domingue was rife with social tensions on the eve of the French Revolution.
The western third of the island of Hispaniola was inhabited by a variety of social groups who resented and distrusted one another.
French colonial officials, wealthy plantation owners and merchants, and poor immigrants were included in the European population.
The last group referred to themselves as free people of color.
The same legal status was given to free people of color by the 1685 Code Noir.
By the time of the French Revolution, many aspects of free coloreds' lives were ruled by discrimination.
The political and intellectual turmoil of the 1780s raised new possibilities for each of Saint-Domingue's social groups.
The news of abolitionist movements in France led to hopes for the freedom of slaves who constituted 90 percent of the population.
Reforms in Paris were seen by free people of color as a way of gaining political enfranchisement and reestablishing equal status with whites.
White elites were incensed by the talk of abolition and wanted to gain control of their own affairs, as had the American colonists before them.
These groups were frustrated by the National Assembly.
The Assembly refused to extend French constitutional safeguards to the colonies because they claimed that support for free people of color would result in slave insurrec tion and independence.
The committee affirmed French monopolies over colonial trade, angering planters as well.
Like the American settlers before them, the colonists were dissatisfied with the rule of the mother country.