The developing world has been divided into two groups that show different levels of development.
The countries of Asia and parts of Latin America have experienced dramatic rates of economic growth and democratization over the past 50 years.
In the past three decades, many of these countries have undergone rapid development with a tendency toward democratization and political and social stability.
Mexico, Brazil, Chile, South Korea, and Taiwan are some of the developed democracies listed in Chapter 8.
Over the past decades, economic and political structures have been weakened.
Poverty, violence, and civil conflict have been seen in some of these countries.
Lower income countries are defined by the World Bank as those below $4,000 per capita gross domestic product, and middle income countries are defined as those between $4,000 and $13,000.
The World Bank stopped using the term "developing countries" in the last few years due to the growing differences between them.
We can use comparisons to understand variations among these countries.
We should look at history before addressing problems.
The experience of belonging to large empires and being possessions of more powerful states is shared by developing countries.
Imperial rule, which lasted for decades or even centuries, dramatical and often rapidly transformed economic, political, and societal institutions in the colonized countries.
The changes this system wrought could not be easily made.
We should keep in mind that history is only one factor in explaining the problems of the post- imperial world, so it is worth looking at them in some detail.
Over the past millennium Europe, the Middle East, and Asia embarked on a series of dramatic societal, economic, and political changes that formed the outlines of what are now recognized as the hallmarks of modern society.
Modern societies were projected to conquer and incorporate new lands and peoples that could contribute to their rapid development.
A large number of external regions or territories and different peoples are part of the sovereignty of a single political authority.
The idea that lands and peoples that are not seen as an integral part of the country itself are still under its direct control is central to the definition.
Consolidating an empire is often done through colonialism.
Modern imperialism can be dated from the fifteenth century, when technological development in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia-- advanced seafaring and military-- had advanced to such.
The Chinese empire turned away from this path.
Having consolidated power hundreds of years before the states of Europe did, the Chinese state grew conservative and inflexible, more interested in maintaining the status quo than in striking out to acquire new lands.
At the same time that Europeans were setting out for the Americas, the Chinese were retreating from overseas voyages; by 1500, it had become illegal for Chinese subjects to build oceangoing vessels.
The Ottoman Empire expanded its power in the Middle East but failed to expand its power beyond the Islamic world.
In both China and the Ottoman Empire there were early state building and imperialism that competed with Europe.
The peoples who became subject to modern imperialism were not a blank slate, without any of their own institutions.
The regions that came under imperial rule already had highly developed economic, political, and societal institutions.
Europe began a process of imperial expansion in the 1500s.
European empires were driven by economic and strategic motives as well as a belief that Christianity and Western culture needed to be brought to the rest of the world.
Spain and Portugal gained control of South America, Central America, and large parts of North America.
British, French, and other settlers arrived in North America by the 17th century.
Ottoman elites were shocked when Europeans began to control parts of North Africa and the Middle East in the 18th century.
Is driven by economic, strategic and religious motives.
Was spread by European territories.
Spain and Portugal partition the Americas after European discovery.
In South America, the Aztecs are defeated by the imperial powers.
The Dutch began to control parts of the Indonesian archipelago and southern Africa.
English settlement begins in North America.
Spanish and Portuguese rule is ended in Latin America.
Hong Kong and India are now under the control of the United Kingdom.
Africa is divided among European powers, notably France, Portugal, and Belgium.
The decolonization of Asia and Africa is a result of World War II.
Hong Kong and Macau returned to China.
Their shock was shared by the Chinese in the 19th and early 20th century.
Most of Africa was divided up by the European states.
Japan joined the European imperialist expansion in the early twentieth century.
Modern political, societal, and economic systems imposed on non- Western societies resulted in the effect of foreign rule.
The transfer of the state to the rest of the world was one of the first effects of imperialism.
The modern state that we take for granted today is a result of a long historical process in Europe, where political units tended to have less control over land and the rule of law.
States consolidated power over other forms of political organization, eliminating their rivals and establishing sovereignty.