The father of Charlemagne was a strong supporter of the papacy.
The relationship between kings and popes was tense since both thought of themselves as ultimate authorities.
The first "Holy Roman Emperor" was crowned in 962 by the pope.
The law of the church gave the pope exclusive legal jurisdiction over clergy and church property wherever it was located.
From 962 to 1806, dues to kings and military support lasted for those who held land as vassals.
The secular rulers argued that they should have the power to appoint the bishops because they needed to fulfill their duties as vassals.
The popes disagreed.
The conflict over control of appointments came to a head in the eleventh century.
Gregory excommunicated Henry IV after he disobeyed his reforms and held ultimate church rituals.
Stung by the decline in his influence, Henry stood barefoot in the snow for three days outside a castle in northern Italy waiting for Gregory, a guest there, to receive him.
Henry's act of penance caused Gregory to forgive him and restore him to the church, but the reconciliation did not last.
Gregory declared Henry deposed in 1078.
Gregory died two years after being forced to flee from Rome.
When a compro mise was reached at Worms, a town in Germany, the struggle between the popes and emperors was over.
In the Concordat of Worms, Emperor Henry V gave up his right to choose bishops and abbots.
Pope Calixtus II allowed the emperor to invest papally appointed bishops and abbots with any lay rights or obligations before their spiritual consecration.
The compromises did not completely solve the problem, but they reduced tensions between the two sides.
Other conflicts were triggered by Assertions of royal authority.
Henry II, a great-grandson of William the Conqueror, instituted reforms designed to strengthen the power of the Crown and weaken the nobility after he became king of England in 1154.
He made juries, a holdover from traditional Germanic law, into powerful legal instruments and appointed traveling justices to enforce his laws.
The principle that criminal acts violated the "king's peace" and should be tried and punished in accordance with charges brought by the Crown instead of the victims was established by him.
Henry had a hard time controlling the church.
The life of a courtier was grand and luxurious.
In 1162 Henry persuaded Becket to become a priest and become the leader of the church in England.
If the church came into conflict with the Crown, he would act solely in the interest of the church.
When Henry wanted to try clerics accused of crimes in royal courts, Thomas resisted.
Four of Henry's knights murdered the archbishop in the cathedral because of the king's desire for Becket's death.
Canterbury became a major pilgrimage center after their crime backfired.
This page from the Book of Kells, written around 800 in Ireland, combines an icon-like image of a gospel writer with complex interwoven patterns in the margin that derive from the preChristian art of northern Europe.
The Evangelist has blonde hair.
Trinity C crucified a saint.
Henry was publicly whipped twice for the crime, but his authority was badly damaged.
The conflict between Henry II and Thomas a Becket was similar to the Concordat of Worms.
Political life in western Europe was more complicated than in Byzantium or the lands of Islam because of the competing legal traditions.
The king was given supreme power by living in a reli custom.
Canon law visualized a gious community apart from secular society and followed a single hierarchical legal institution with jurisdiction over all of Western Christendom.
Groups of monks or nuns living together in organized communities is the most important form of monasticism in western Europe.
Benedict of Nursia was the person most responsible for introducing this originally Egyptian practice in the Latin west.
He had a life of devotion and work, along with obligations of celibacy, poverty, and disobedience to his rules for monastic the abbot.
The Rule of Benedict was the starting point for monastic life in western Europe and is still in force today in Benedictine monasteries.
The cloistered way of life of monks and nuns reinforced the separation of religious affairs from politics and economics.
Jesus said to "render unto Caesar what is Caesar's and unto God what is God's", which was followed by monasteries.
Lay nobles are interested only in warfare and hunting.
The monks saw copying manuscripts and writing books as a religious calling.
Many ancient Latin works were preserved.
The survival of Greek works depended on the Byzantines and Muslims in the east.
Other functions were served by convents and monasteries.
Irish monks planted Christianity in parts of Germany.
Most took in infants abandoned by their parents and serviced the needs of travelers.
Convents were a place of refuge for women who lacked male protection in the harsh medieval world or who wanted a spiritual life.
Problems of oversight were presented to the church by these religious houses.
The head of a convent might have authority over an abbess, but he couldn't always be sure of what was happening behind the monastery walls.
The first duke of Aquitaine, William the Pious, freed it of lay authority and a century later, the local bishop gave it the same freedom.
The abbots pursued a vigorous campaign to improve monastic discipline and administration.
Cluny's claims to eminence were symbolized by a magnificent new church.
It became the largest church in the world with later additions.
The conflict with the Holy Roman Emperors led to the investiture of the Benedictine Rule.
Benedict of reform gained new impetus in the second half of Nursia founded the Benedictine Rule, and later the need for greater discipline over monks and nuns led to the founding of cian order.
The pattern for monasteries was set by these movements.
The future of Latin and Orthodox Christendom was not apparent in 900.
The Christianity of Rome was taught to the Poles and other Slavic peoples in the north by German priests and missionaries.
The southern Slavs took their faith from Constantinople.
The conversion of Kievan Russia, farther to the east, shows how economics, politics, and religious life were intertwined.
The choice of orthodoxy over Catholicism had consequences.
In the far north, there is a frozen tundra, followed by a cold forest zone, a mix of forest and grassland, and finally a grassland only.
Most of the Germanic peoples migrated into eastern Europe from Russia and Ukraine in the Roman times.
Finns and related peoples lived in the former region, but not in the far north and south.
The forest dwellers, farmers, and steppe nomads were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609-
honey, wax, and furs from the forest were important exchange items.
The boats on the rivers could be used to move traders north and south.
The trading activity of Varangians who sailed across the Baltic and down Russia's rivers can be seen in the thousands of Byzantine and Islamic coins buried in Poland and on islands in the Baltic Sea.
The exchange of forest products and slaves for manufactured goods and coins was done at markets controlled by the Khazar Turks.
The mouth of the Volga River was the location of the powerful Khazar kingdom.
The princes fought off their enemies.
There is a semilegendary account of the conversion of the Kievan Rus to Christianity.
I, the ruler of Novgorod who had fallen from power, returned from exile to Kiev with a group of Varangians and became the grand prince of Russia.
Vladimir built a temple on Kiev's heights and placed the statues of the six gods his Slavic subjects worshiped there.
According to the earliest Russian chronicle, Vladimir and his advisers decided against Islam as the official religion because of its ban on alcohol, as well as rejecting Judaism because they thought a powerful god would not allow the Jewish kingdom to be destroyed.
It's not clear why Vladimir chose Orthodox Christianity over the Latin version.
The magnificence of Constantinople seems to have been considered.
After visiting Byzantine churches, his agents reported that there was no such beauty on earth.
God dwells among men, and their service is better than the ceremonies of other nations.
After choosing a reluctant bride from the Byzantine imperial family, Vladimir converted to Orthodox Christianity and opened his lands to Orthodox clerics and missionaries.
The chief bishop was appointed by the patriarch of Constantinople.
One of the churches was on the ruins of the temple.
The western Slavs used the Cyrillic alphabet for writing.
The barrier against the eastward expansion of Latin Christianity was created by the extension of Orthodox Christendom northward.
The Muslim world was turned back on by Kiev as it became more focused on trade with Byzantium.
The later political history of Kievan Russia was marked by battles within the ruling family and with other enemies.
The state was used as an instrument for the Christianization of the eastern Slavs during the 13th century.
The manorial agricultural system of western Europe never developed because of the political power of Russia.
Farmers practiced shifting their land use.
They would burn a section of forest, then lightly scratch the ash-strewn surface with a plow.
They moved to another section of the forest when fertility waned.
Food was hard to come by in the most northerly latitudes because of poor land and a short growing season.
Living on their own estates, the druzhina evolved from infantry into cavalry and focused their efforts on horse breeding.
The Russian Orthodox cathedral was built in the 12th century.
The three-arch facade, small dome, and symmetrical Greek Cross floor plan are very similar to the Byzantine church shown on page 258.
fortified trading posts made many cities little more than that.
The lords ruled from glassmaking, based on skills imported from Byz cities, because there was no manorial system in Russia.
The Varangian traders established political control over the Slavic than the peasant farmers.
Wood peoples were used in construction.
Orthodox Christianity slowly penetrated the general popula.
Polytheist uprisings occurred in Russia in the eleventh century, though they penetrated the popula slowly.
Some groups refused to accept Christian burial and continued to cremate the dead in crafts such as glassmaking.
As late as the 12th century, Christian societies in Europe were still using polytheist priests to cure sick children.
The clergy were scandalized by traditional Slavic marriage practices.
Increased church engagement in political and economic affairs was a result of Christianity's success.
Christian clergy collected fees and taxes related to trade in the 12th century.
The rulers needed the money from trade to pay their soldiers.
The rule of law spread as Russia experienced its peak of culture and prosperity in the century before the Mongol invasion of 1237.
Between 1000 and 1200 western Europe slowly emerged from a subsistence economy in which most people who worked on the land could only meet their basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter.
A growing food surplus found its way to town markets, speeding the return of a money-based economy and providing support for larger numbers of craftspeople, construction workers, and traders.
Historians believe that the revival of western Europe is due to population growth spurred by new technologies and the appearance of selfgoverning cities devoted to seaborne trade.
The changes made it possible for monarchs to improve central administration, gain control over vassals, and consolidate their realm on the way to becoming stronger kingdoms.
Efforts to relate the exact course of Europe's revival to technological change are hampered by a lack of concrete evidence.
Most historians agree that technology contributed to the near doubling of the population of western Europe between 1000 and 1200.
The population of England has risen from 1.1 million in 1086 to 1.9 million in 1200, while the population of modern France has risen from 5.2 million to 9.2 million.
The use of efficient draft harnesses for pulling wagons and a new type of plow are examples of how difficult it is to draw historical conclusions from technological change.
Farmers in southern Europe and Byzantium continued to use the Roman plow, which scratched shallow grooves, as it was appropriate for Mediterranean soils.
The new plow cut deep into the soil with a knifelike blade, while a curved board mounted behind the blade lifted the cut layer and turned it over.
It was possible to farm the clays of the northern river valleys.
It took more energy to pull the new plow.
Horses were more delicate than oxen.
Iron horseshoes added to the farmer's expenses because they helped protect their feet.
A horse pulling a heavy load risked strangulation because Roman horse harnesses put too much pressure on the animal's neck.
Harnessing is related to the adoption of more efficient designs.
The breast-strap harness was preferred in southern Europe because it was from the animal's neck.
The adoption tried to trace key technical terms to Chinese or Turko-Mongol words and argued that tech favors the spread of horse nological dispersal across Eurasia.
In Tunisia and Libya, third-century Roman farmers used plows and vehicles.
Women are setting up a loom.
The weft is interwoven with warp threads.
The warp threads are held taut by the pole across the loom.
In Europe, it's 17.l.f.
The Roman bas-reliefs and lamps in Tunisia show C, but there is no evidence that it has moved northward into Europe.
The question of where efficient harness came from can't be easily answered.
The question of when and why teams of horses began to pull plows through moist, fertile river-valley soils that were too heavy for oxen is being asked.
Stronger and faster than oxen, horses increased productivity by reducing the time needed for plowing, but they cost more to feed and equip.
Although agricultural surpluses did grow and better plowing did play a role in this growth, areas that continued to use oxen and even old-style plows seem to have shared in the general population growth of the period.
Groups of leading citizens banded together to defend their cities and demand the privilege of self-government from their lay ecclesiastical or lord.
The lords who granted the privileges benefited from the economy.
Manufacturing and trade were encouraged by the laws these cities enacted.
Laws making serfs free once they arrived in the city attracted many workers from the countryside.
The cities in Italy that had shrunk within the walls built by the Romans were forced to build new ones.
Pisa built a new wall in 1000.
A group of islands at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea that had been largely uninhabited in Roman times organized themselves into the city of Venice.
The dominant sea power in the Adriatic came from the emergence of Christian societies in Europe.
Venice was competing with Pisa and Genoa for leadership in the trade with Muslim ports in North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.
Some products of Muslim lands and some coming via the Silk Road or the Indian Ocean are mentioned in a merchant's list.
Among them were eleven types of alum, eleven types of wax, eight types of cotton, four types of indigo, five types of ginger, four types of paper, and fifteen types of sugar.
By the time of the Crusades, Genoa, Venice, and Pisa were the most important ports in the Mediterranean.
Enjoying comparable independence, these cities centralized the fishing and wool trades of the North Sea region.
Western Europe became more dynamic after 1000.
The upturn in economic activity was signaled by more abundant coinage.
Most gold coins came from mercial activity, with some cities gaining independence from Muslim lands and the Byzantine Empire.
Being religious and lay.
The minting of silver coins began in Northern Italy and Flanders in the 12th century.
The Latin capture of Constan salem from Muslim rule was the result of four great expedi that were determined to recover Jeru tions.
Since the fall of Rome, the tinople has been the region's largest military undertaking.
The Crusades brought an end to the Crusades and led to the rise of noble courts and burgeoning cities in western Europe.
This set the stage for the later adoption of ideas, artistic styles, and industrial proclivities from Byzantium and the lands of Islam.
The Crusades were made possible by several social and economic currents of the eleventh century.
The Truce of God was popularized by the leaders of the Latin Church.
The movement limited fighting between Christian lords to times of truce, such as during Lent and on Sundays.
The Norman chiefs who invaded England and Sicily were looking for new lands to con ing.
Nobles, particularly younger sons in areas where the oldest son left everything, were hungry for land and titles to maintain their status.
Italian merchants wanted to increase the number of ern crusaders.
The first two Crusades went overland.
The Third Crusade included contingents under the French and English kings, Philip Augustus and Richard Lion-Heart, that traveled by sea, and a contingent under the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa that took the overland route.
Frederick died in the south.
Sicily, Crete, and Cyprus played important roles in the later Crusades.
Without the desire of the church to demonstrate political authority over western Christendom, the Crusades might never have occurred.
The Holy Land had been under Muslim rule for four centuries.
Pilgrims traveled to Europe under royal protection, with a few in their number actually being sacred shrines by Christians, and merchants for whom pilgrimage was a safe way to show their piety.
Pilgrims journeyed to visit the old churches and sacred relics before fulfilling their vows.
The intrepid went to Jerusalem and other places for sins.
Other religions are under Muslim control to fulfill their vows.
The Umayyad Caliphate in al-Andalus had broken up in the eleventh century, leaving pilgrimages in smaller states vulnerable to attacks from the north.
The Chinese Buddhists to India began a movement of reconquest that culminated in the surrender of the last in search of a sacred Buddhist Muslim kingdom.
After thirty years of fighting, the Normans finally defeated the Muslims in Sicily in the 1090s.
Both churchmen and nobles were influenced by the tales of pilgrims returning from Palestine to consider the Muslims a proper target for Christian militancy.
Christian pilgrims were generally protected by the Muslim rulers of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch.
At the time of the Crusades, the armament of knights was shown in this painting.
There is a shield on the left side that protects the rider.
The sword and lance are the primary weapons.
While riders with swords and in flight have bent legs, riders with lances have their legs straight and braced in the stirrups.
The pilgrimage route through Anatolia deteriorated further.
The ancient centers of Christianity, such as Ephesus, were threatened by the decline of Byzantine power.
Alexius Comnenus, the emperor of the Byz antine, asked the pope and western European rulers to help him fight the Muslim threat, despite the theological differences between the Orthodox and Roman churches.
The Council of Clermont received a reply from Pope Urban II.
He told the crowd of Christians to stop fighting and go to the Holy Land to fight Muslims.
People sewed crosses on their shirts to show their willingness to march on Jerusalem.
The usual reward for peaceful pilgrims to Jerusalem is free crusaders who have committed sins from their normal penance.