ChAPTER 28 -- Part 4: The Emergence of Industrial Society
Britain was involved in cultural changes.
There is no question that Britain had some special ingredients by the late 18th century and that there was steady advances in sciences.
The flying shuttle was introduced in 1733 and doubled the productivity of a hand weaver.
Inventions followed for spinning and weaving.
Surpluses that could support larger urban populations began to be generated by agricultural improvements, including seed drills and crops to replenish the soil.
Increased attention to coal mining led to the first invention of a steam engine, which was used to pump water from the mines.
James Watt's invention of a steam engine that could be applied to manufacturing processes was the key step.
Increased manufacturing output in industries like cotton textiles is a result of steam power using fossil fuel.
Edmund Cartwright's power loom transmitted steam power to the manufacturing process.
Growth in metallurgy was stimulated by the new machine.
A large number of workers were grouped near the engine itself.
Workers in factories could be more disciplined, their labor more specialized, and their productivity could be increased.
The effects of early British industrialization were wide.
The pace of work went up, wages went down, and child labor played a significant role in the early factories.
By 1850, Britain would be 50% urban, the first level in human history.
The principles of industrialization were spread by the introduction of steam locomotives.
The environmental impact of early industrialization was immediate.
Industrial chemicals and human sewage could cause smoke to choke the air.
The early industrial cities had a haze that blocked sunlight and promoted diseases like rickets.
Businessmen sought new profits and the military saw the advantages of the new production forms.
The new United States was one of the places that British industrialization found eager imitators.
Governments that were more friendly to economic growth were created as a result of political upheavals.
The French Revolution abolished guild restrictions to facilitate technological change.
Governments and businessmen alike began to copy British methods, creating a more general Western industrialization process from the 1820s onward.
British features were modified as industrialization spread.
The use of child labor in factories caused concern in the 1830s, not only in Britain but in the newer industrializers.
The conversion of childhood from a focus on work to a focus on education began with legal limits on labor and school requirements.
Early industrialization promoted disruption wherever it occurred.
The pressures of crowded cities and slum housing made it difficult for new work ers.
Older groups were afraid of their futures.
The course of early industrializa tion was briefly interrupted by a political uprising in western Europe.
The Reform Bill in England did not extend the vote to workers, but it did respond to the growing working-class angst and led to more political protest.
Lower-class groups tried to compensate for industrial change by resorting to political protest.
The revolutions of 1848 and 1849 brought protest to a head.
The movement failed because Paris was of petitions.
After a popular uprising began in February of 1848, the French monarchy was once again expelled, this time for good, and a democratic republic was established.
Groups of women teachers called for the vote and called for political rights for women.
The social demands were much larger than those of 1789.
The revolution spread quickly to other centers.
There were major revolts in Germany, Austria, and Hungary.
Revolutionaries created liberal constitutions to modify conserva tive monarchies, artisans pressed for social reforms that would restrain industrialization, and peasants wanted a complete end to manorialism.
German nationalists worked for the unity of their country, and various nationalities in Austria- Hungary, including Slavic groups, sought greater autonomy.
There was a liberal nationalist revolt in Italy.
The fires only lasted a short time.
Conservatives and middle-class liberals opposed the social demands of artisans and factory workers.
The status quo was restored to central Europe and Italy by the armies of Austria-Hungary and Prus sia.
The liberal republic of France was replaced by an authoritarian empire that lasted until 1870.
Peasant demands were met and serfdom was abolished in western Europe.