Edited Invalid date
14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
Because it is similar to amphetamines, its use is restricted to prescription drugs.
Unlike other gymnosperms, all gnetophytes have vessel elements in their xylem.
The angiosperms, or flowering plants, have successfully evolved to dominate most of the land.
The division is second only to insects in terms of diversity, with more than 260,000 species.
There are flowers in a garden.
Plants are abundant in the landscape.
The colors of flowers are adapted to pollination by insects and birds.
Plants were able to form evolutionary relationships with animals and insects through flowers.
Fruit protects the embryo and is an agent of dispersal.
The dispersal strategies that help with the spread of seeds are reflected in different structures on fruit.
The flowers are organized around a central stalk.
All flowers have the same structures, and they vary greatly in appearance.
There are some exceptions to the fact that Sepals are usually photosynthetic organs.
The word tepal is derived from the fact that the corolla in lilies and tulips looks almost identical.
Small and dull flowers are pollinated by wind.
There are sexual organs at the center of the flower.
A flower may contain more than one carpel.
The female gametophytes are protected by the thick tissues of the carpel.
Each ovule in the ovary develops into a seed after fertilization.
The anther is supported by the filament.
This image shows the structure of a flower.
Both male and female floral organs are carried by perfect flowers.
As the seeds grow, the seed enlarges in size.
The walls of the ovary form the fruit as the seed develops.
A fruit is a fully grown ovary that has been fertilized.
Vegetables are actually fruit.
The thick ovary tissue of bell peppers and string beans is what makes them technically fruit.
The scientific name is a samara and it is also fruit.
The mature fruit can be described as dry.
Fruit with flesh include the familiar berries, peaches, apples, grapes, and tomatoes.
Some examples of dry fruit are rice, wheat, and nuts.
Not all fruits are derived from the ovary.
Some fruits are derived from different parts of a flower.
Some fruits, like watermelon and orange, have rinds.
Fruits are an agent of dispersal regardless of how they are formed.
The dispersal mode is reflected in the variety of shapes and characteristics.
The wind carries the fruits of trees and dandelions.
Coconuts are moving.
Fruits that are colored, perfumed, and sweet are attractive to herbivores, which eat the fruit and scatter the tough undigested seeds in their feces.
Other fruits have hooks that can be used to hitch rides on animals.
The main phase of an angiosperm's life cycle is the adult.
Gymnosperms are Heterosporous.
The male and female gametophytes form an ovule containing the male and female gametophytes.
Inside the anthers' microsporangia, male microsporocytes divide by meiosis and give rise to haploid microspores that give rise to pollen grains.
There are two cells in a pollen grain, one of which will become a sperm and the other of which will become a pollen tube cell.
The diagram shows the lifecycle of a plant.
The embryo sac and the pollen grain are the actual gametophytes.
The process of double fertilization is unique to angiosperms.
The female gametophyte is produced when four haploid megaspores are produced.
One of these is larger than the others and undergoes a procedure to form an embryo sac.
There are eight nuclei in seven cells.
The embryo sac has an egg and two cells at one end and three cells at the other.
A pollen tube extends from the grain, grows down the style, and enters through an opening in the ovule when it reaches the stigma.
The embryo sac contains sperm cells.
A double fertilization event is unique to angiosperms.
The sperm and egg combine to form a diploid embryo.
The diploid nucleus in the center of the embryo sac is where the other sperm form a triploid cell that develops into the endosperm: a tissue that serves as a food reserve.
The cotyledons act as conduits to transmit the broken-down food reserves to the developing embryo.
The embryo is protected by a layer of integuments forming the coat, the endosperm with food reserves and the well-protected embryo.
Double fertilization can only happen in angiosperms.
Most flowers have both carpels and stamens.
Both types of sex organs can be found in these flowers.
Self-pollination can increase the number of genetic defects in offspring.
A plant may have both genders in each flower, or it may have imperfect flowers of both kinds on one plant.
Plants with perfect flowers are referred to as hermaphroditic.
Some plants are dioecious, meaning "two houses," and have male and female flowers on different plants.
Cross-pollination occurs all the time in these species.
Plants with both male and female reproductive structures are monoecious.
The reproductive structures of males and females are different in dioecious plants.
Modern angiosperms appear to be a monophyletic group.
They are grouped together in a group called the Magnoliidae.
magnolia trees, laurels, water lilies, and the pepper family are part of the Magnoliidae group.
The magnolias are considered archaic because of their large, fragrant flowers with many parts.
There are fragrant leaves and flowers in the trees.
The Laurales are small trees and shrubs that grow in warmer climates.
The water lilies, lotus, and similar plants are part of the nymphaeales.
The leaves of the Nymphaeales float on the water surface or grow underwater.
Water lilies have graced ponds and pools since antiquity.
A group of herbs, shrubs, and small trees grow in tropical climates.
They have small flowers without petals that are arranged in long spikes.
The flowers are small.
The magnolia tree's red berries, which are characteristic of the final stage, are just starting to appear.
Plants in the monocot group have a single cotyledon in the seedling, as well as other features.
The flower parts are arranged in a three- or six-fold symmetry.
Monosulcate was the type of pollen from the first angiosperms.
The feature is still present in the modern monocots.
The stem's vascular tissue is not arranged in a particular pattern, and true woody tissue is rarely found in monocots.
The root system is mostly adventitious.
The true lilies, orchids, grasses, and palms are some of the familiar plants in the monocots.
The world's major crops are flowering plants.
One staple food is rice, as are other cereals and beans.
Some flowers, such as the (c) lily, are monocots, while others, such as the (d) daisy, are eudicots.
Eudicots are characterized by the presence of two cotyledons.
There are veins in the leaves.
There are four, five, or many whorls of flower parts.
There is a ring in the stem.
The pollen that is trisulcate or triporate is produced by most eudicots.
The root system is usually anchored by a single root.
Two-thirds of flowering plants are Eudicots.
It was possible to colonize land and survive out of water with the help of land plants.
The adaptions to life on land include tissues, roots, leaves, and a tough outer layer.
Land plants include nonvascular plants.
Plants with seeds have apical meristems, while seedless plants have embryo stores.
The haploid plant called a gametophyte and the diploid plant called a sporophyte are two of the characteristics of all land plants.
Nonvascular plants are small.
The gametophyte is the most important stage of the life cycle.
They don't have a vascular system or roots to absorb water and nutrients.
The three main groups are the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
They are called bryophytes.
The book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9 There were leaves and roots to absorb water from the ground.
Club mosses are the most primitive of the seedless plants.
Gymnosperms are Heterosporous seed plants that produce naked seeds.
They were the dominant plant life during the Mesozoic era and appeared in the Carboniferous period.
Gymnosperms are in four divisions.
The conifers are the main plants at high altitudes and latitudes.
Cycads grow in tropical climates.
The Gnetophytes are a diverse group of species that produce vessel elements in their wood.
90 percent of all plant species are angiosperms, the dominant form of plant life.
A lot of crop and ornamental plants are angiosperms.
Plants are derived from modified leaves.
The reproductive parts of a flower are protected by the stamens and the carpels.
The male gametes are pollen grains.
The female gametes are inside the carpels.
The ripening of the walls of the ovary can facilitate seed dispersal.
The life cycles of angiosperms are dominated by the sporophyte stage.
A unique event to angiosperms is double fertilization.
According to the number of cotyledons in the seedlings, the flowering plants are divided into two main groups.
Basal angiosperms are older than monocots.
A flower without a megasporangium is not a flower.
They grow better in cold weather.
They do not need water.
The haploid stage leads to the d.
Plants carry seeds on their leaves.
There are reproductive structures in a flower.
A single cycle develops corn.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms