The Russian Social Democratic party was made a disciplined revolutionary organization by Lenin.
The "revisionist" wing of the party gained majority support at a meeting in 1903.
The words on the banner show that these women are not alone.
The first street protest that led to the fall of the tsarist government of Russia was against high bread prices.
Workers were already on strike, and soldiers refused orders to break up the protesters.
The Social Democrats were broken away from by the Bolsheviks in 1912.
The name was changed to Communist in 1918.
Swiss Marxist activi ties were promoted by Lenin during the First World War.
The Germans hoped that his activities in Petrograd would help to overthrow the new government and take Russia out of the war.
He had to take power from the government that was trying to restore order and uphold Russia's obligation to its allies.
The country's conditions grew more desperate.
Though Russia's economy had not developed to the point at which a proletarian revolution in the Marxist pattern could be expected, Lenin became convinced that the war had opened a shortcut to socialism.
The majority of the Russian people wanted peace, land, and food.
Alexander Kerensky, a Social Revolutionary, headed the government after July.
The road to power was through Petrograd Soviet.
Despite being a minority within the Soviet, the Bolsheviks were supported by the public because of their promises of peace and land.
Leon Trotsky, a close ally of Lenin, was elected chairman of the Soviet in October 1917.
As Kerensky's power waned and soldiers began to desert their units, Lenin decided to move against the government.
The seizure of power was carefully planned and executed.
The telephone exchanges, power plants, and railway stations of the capital were occupied by a revolutionary force with the support of the Petrograd military garrison.
Kerensky didn't find any troops to defend his government, and the rest of his ministers fled or were captured.
According to plan, on the afternoon of the coup, Lenin arranged a meeting for delegates from soviets in other parts of the country.
The congress, controlled by the Bolsheviks, declared the government to be over and claimed full authority.
The decrees were approved for peace with Germany and the distribution of land to the peasants.
The congress elected a Council of People's Commissars to conduct the government, with Lenin at its head.
The fact that a small group, shrewdly and bravely led, had moved into the confused situation and taken command was not concealed.
The only organs of administration were the Communist party and soviets.
The Red Army was authorized by the commissars and established a secret police.
The leader of the military was to be the military commissar, Trotsky.
The first test of the new government was the arrival of delegates to a national assembly in Petrograd in January 1918.
The body was authorized months before to write a liberal constitution for the country.
A majority of the delegates were from Kerensky's Social Revolutionary party.
The meetings of the assembly were stopped by a company of sailors who were sent by Lenin.
In March 1918, the new Soviet government signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers and agreed to give up control of many parts of the former Russian Empire.
The defeat freed the Soviets' hands to face the next challenge.
Counterrevolutionary forces were led by former tsarist generals in several regions of the country.
Property owners, reactionaries, liberals, and anti-Bolshevik revolutionaries were with them.
The Western Allies sent military units to help the Whites against the Reds, while the Allies were trying to keep Russia in the war.
The Communists emerged victorious after two years of war.
The Red triumph was made possible by the will of Lenin and the genius of Trotsky.
It was due to the confusion and splits among the counterrevolutionary groups and their association with foreign powers.
The attitude of the common people was most to blame in the last analysis.
The new regime was opposed by many of the commoners.
They preferred the reactionaries over the Communists.
In the fluid, guerrilla-type struggle popular support proved decisive.
With the bloody incident over, Lenin and his party sought to bring order to the chaos.
The task of pulling together a battle-torn country and changing its social structure was staggering.
The war against the Central Powers brought more distress than the civil unrest.
Forced deliveries of food from the peasants were included in order to relieve hunger in the cities.
In 1921, the economic conditions were so bad that the plans for socialism had to be put on hold.
The primary problem was food, and it had gotten worse because of the dry spell.
In order to spur their efforts and encourage them to market their produce, the peasants of each community had divided their properties among themselves, and something had to be done quickly.
The New Economic Policy was launched in 1921.
Peasant farmers were allowed to hire workers and sell or lease land.
The growers could market what they wanted.
The NEP was extended to industry and commerce.
Private entrepreneurs were encouraged to start new businesses because the state kept its grip on public utilities and other large industries.
Significant recovery of production was brought about by this temporary return to capitalistic methods.
It was not up to the expectations of the Communists.
The NEP seemed to slacken as output was about the same as it had been in 1913.
In 1924, the revered Lenin had died, and his former colleagues were maneuvering to take his place.
The most talented and radical, and the best known, was Trotsky.
The majority of the party did not support Trotsky.
Joseph Stalin, who held the post of party secretary, built a following for himself as the heir to the throne.
He asked those who wanted to concentrate on the revolution inside Russia to look inward rather than to the world.
Trotsky was expelled from the party in 1927 and sent to Siberia.
Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico in 1940 by agents of Stalin, who was branded a communist heretic.
Stalin began the building of socialism in one country using the policies of rapid planned development that Trotsky had called for.
The party's first five-year plan focused on the collectivization of farming and the development of industry.
State-controlled planning was the fulfillment of an idea that had been worked out by Marx's partner.
The efficient operation of individual factories and industries depends on planning.
He thought that the ultimate goal was the creation of a unified and complete national plan.
Stalin's plan ran into resistance.
His officials joined private farms into large collectives of 1,000 or more acres.
The farmers of each collective kept possession of the land, but individual farmers lost control of the land.
The kulaks fought collectivization bitterly, but the poorer peasants usually submitted to these forced measures.
Most of the two million kulaks and their families were shipped off to Siberia to work in labor camps.
Some of them sabotaged and destroyed their animals in a final act of defiance.
The famines of the early 1930s were caused by heavy losses and government manipulation.
Stalin pursued the collective-farm program as a means of effecting complete state control over the rural population and of increasing agricultural efficiency and output.
He believed the collectives could make better use of machinery and scientific methods.
There was a loss of personal incentive in this system.
The Com munist party's ruling bodies protested Stalin's farm policy.
Theoretician and activist, who was an associate of both Stalin and Lenin, was his most notable critic.
The use of force against the peasants was condemned by Bukharin.
Stalin outmaneuvered his opponents.
He was sentenced to be shot after a rigged show trial.
The course of Soviet history might have been different if Bukharin and his allies had succeeded in stopping Stalin.
Many other communist leaders, along with almost all the Old Bolsheviks who had belonged to the party before the Revolution, and millions of lower-ranking party members, government officials, and ordinary citizens, were also arrested in a series of massive purges, which probably originated in Stalin's determination The victims were often coerced into confessing to their crimes and sent to labor camps or shot.
Positive advances were being made in industry despite the painful and destructive events that were taking place in the countryside.
The rate of growth in the 1930s was higher than any Western nation.
The life and culture of a chapter 14: the west divided vast region was altered by the east of the Urals.
The combination of socialist planning and state exploitation of labor made rapid modernization possible.
The example captured the attention of other countries.
Russian workers and peasants were proud of their Soviet material accomplishments.
They were happy to see that "backward Russia" was catching up to the West.
Most Soviet children enjoyed more opportunities than their parents did, and access to education and the arts was extended.
The Orthodox Church was stripped of its property and influence.
There wasn't a free press, free speech, free unions or freedom of assembly.
The feared secret police supported the political power of the party.
Dissenters were put down or destroyed by Stalin's systematic terror: show trials, purges, labor camps, and mass executions.
The Soviet government was able to deaden virtually every nerve of resistance using these modern tools.
The major political institutions of the new state were formed.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a federal, democratic state according to the 1923 constitution.
The Communists wanted to avoid suppressing national feeling, and the former Russian Empire had embraced some fifty nationalities.
A republic is a self-governing region within a nation.
By 1940, there were fifteen republics, and the largest was the Russian, which had over half the population of the USSR.
The Ukrainian Republic, which was taken by the Reds during the Civil War, had less inhabitants than the Russian Republic and the White Russian.
One to six million inhabitants were the average for most of the other republics.
Each republic had a different administration for its internal affairs.
The Supreme Soviet was the highest body in the federal structure.
The body only met for a short time each year, when it elected a Presidium of thirty members.
The Council of People's Commissars were the heads of the federal government.
In 1924 the Soviet capital was moved to Moscow.
The agencies of the state were not in charge of controlling the power of the USSR.
It wasn't a party that was liberal-democratic but a disciplined organization that wanted to run the country.
The constitution of 1923 authorized it to carry out this special role.
While one did not have to be a party member to vote or run for office in the Soviet Union, party representatives decided who would be placed on the election ballot.
The principle of "democratic centralism" was followed within the party, as officers and delegates to higher bodies were elected at several levels.
The Congress delegated its power to the Central Committee after being recognized as the highest party authority.
Power went to the top after the time of Lenin.
It was the duty of every Communist to work for the fulfillment of the policy that was decided there.
Without the party organization and its carefully selected and trained membership, the Soviet state could not have transformed, as it did, a country that covers one-sixth of the land surface of the earth.
The monopoly of power by a single party would prove incapable of satisfying the desires of the subject peoples in the long run.
They were Marxists and worked for world revolution, but they didn't make much headway in that direction.
Marx gave socialism its international character because national states were narrow creations of the bourgeoisie.
He organized the First (Socialist) International in the 19th century.
The international socialist movement was weak during the rest of the 19th century.
It was troubled by internal differences and by rival patriotisms.
The socialist parties of many nations fell apart with the start of the First World War.
Most "reformist" socialists supported the "patriotic fronts" of their homelands despite the fact that a radical minority refused to support their war governments.
The war was a natural outcome of capitalism and the reformist parties were disdained by Lenin.
He invited left-wing socialists in Europe to join the Soviet Communist party in forming a Third International.
This would be a pure successor to Marx's original organization, declared Lenin.
It was free of the socialists and pledged to revolution and dictatorship.
Left-wing socialists of other countries were impressed by Lenin's stand and readily accepted radical leadership.
The methods of the Soviet party were adopted by the new association.
The name "Communist" was imposed on the international body and on each of the national parties.
Rival groups of Marxists outside the Soviet Union became hostile.
The violence used by the Communists, especially under Stalin, was viewed with horror by the reformist socialists.
The Third International, known as the Comintern, had little chance of success due to alienating the large majority of Marxists outside the Soviet Union.
The democratic socialists were strengthened by their break with Marxism and made gains in the Western nations.
The existing order was preserved by legal and democratic reforms in France, Germany, Sweden, and Britain.
France and Germany had large and legal Communist parties, but they were excluded from governing power.
There was no proletarian revolution in the West.
Communist parties with Moscow's support and direction were at work in fifty or more countries, militantly opposing capitalism and imperialism and serving as arms of propaganda and espionage for the USSR.
The main international influence of communism was not through the activities of the Comintern but through chapter 14: the west divided the fact that the Soviet Union was a world power.
It could be seen as a concrete alternative to liberalism and capitalism by collectivists of all shades.
They could use the Soviet Union as an example of state planning and cooperative social principles despite their objections.
The fear of communism pushed several European nations into revolutionary changes.
In Italy and Germany, the fascist revolutions sprang from two conditions: a social crisis that arose in the wake of the First World War and the inadequacy of liberal-democratic government.
The revolutions in Italy and Germany were propelled by violent nationalisms.
There is a significant difference between the two types of revolution.
The decades of Marxist organization, propaganda, and threats of action had anticipated the Communist uprisings in Europe.
It came as a surprise.
Before 1918, it had no ideological founders, no authoritative books, and no forces in evidence.
It can now be understood as a break out of strong ideas and passions, some open to view and some hidden, that were opposed to liberalism, democracy, and rationalism.
Privileged groups as well as ordinary people were attracted to fascists.
Its support of class interests, including those of the military, satisfied individuals of property and power.
Most male citizens were not entitled to vote until 1912 and the parliamentary institutions were less than fifty years old.
The Italian legislature seemed incapable of dealing with inflation and unemployment after the war, and most Italians were angry about their country's role in the war.
Though they finished on the side of the victors, their armies had suffered a lot.
The Allies promised Italy a portion of what they had promised as a reward for entering the conflict on the Allied side.
Many voters turned to the Socialists in the hope that they would do something about the economy.
The elections of 1919 gave the Socialist party one-third of the seats in the national Chamber ofDeputies, and with the Catholic Popular party, the Socialists might have developed a constructive program for the country.
Socialist trade unions began to take action after mutual distrust between Catholics and Marxists made cooperation impossible.
Unionists tried to operate a number of factories in the 1920s.
The propertied classes were frightened by the action of the workers.
The Socialist party lost its chance to become a dominant political force when it split over whether or not to join the Communist Third International.
It was on this scene of confusion, discontent, and fear that Mussolini presented himself as the national savior.
Mussolini was a man of the laboring class and the son of a blacksmith.
He went to school to become a teacher.
He gained a reputation as a radical leader after he became editor of the Socialist party newspaper in Milan in 1912.
He was a Marxist and initially opposed war, but in October 1914 he changed his mind and urged Italy to join the war against Germany.
He was kicked out of the party and newspaper.
He used to publish his new convictions in a journal that he used to advance his political career.
Mussolini was injured in an accident in 1917 while serving in the war.
He tried to get the public to support the war effort.
After the Russian Revolution, he turned against socialism completely.
He was attracted to violence as a way of life and as a means of securing change after he opposed the parliamentary government of his own country.
The units took part in street fighting with socialists and others they disliked, smashed opposing party and newspaper offices, and killed some of the opposing leaders.
Mussolini organized his forces into a fascist political party even though he had contempt for the parliamentary party system.
Thirty-five seats in the Chamber of Deputies were won by the Fascists in the national election of 1921.
Mussolini made attacks on socialism as their leader.
He gained support from the shopkeepers and white-collar class, but also from the rich.
The uniforms, parades, mass rallies, and calls for action were popular with young people.
In 1922, his Blackshirts drove the legally elected socialist governments from control of Italy's northern industrial cities, and later that year, a huge Fascist assembly in Naples called for a march on Rome.
The king of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, was faced with the prospect of black-shirted bullies coming to his capital.
The prime minister urged him to declare martial law.
Mussolini was invited by the king to form a new administration.
Mussolini arrived by railway car to take over the government after the Fascists marched on the city.
Mussolini was given dictatorial power for one year by the Chamber of Deputies after the west surrendered to the Blackshirt threat.
The party won 70 percent of the national vote in the 1924 election.
The party received the support of many moderates who hoped that they could exert a restraining influence on the Duce.
Within a few years, he had established a fascist state.
Musso lini's triumph was a result of a variety of factors, but the collapse of Italian democracy was clearly due to its own failures.
The army and industrialists of the country were critical to them.
Mussolini didn't have to create a new army, the regular army came to his side.
Many of its high officers had fascist sympathies from the beginning, and the Duce's glorification of militarism and his extravagant support of the army gained their active loyalty.
The industrial leaders were unsure about Mussolini at first.
He smashed the Socialist party and the unions, but they were worried about his intentions for business.
The industrialists signed an agreement with the Duce.
The industrialists were given a position in the government in return for their support of the Fascists.
Major employers in agriculture and commerce were given the same authority later.
It was thought that this state would harmonize all the economic and social interests in the country.
The dictator allowed the leading capitalists to administer the nation's economic affairs through the corporate state.
Mussolini had an alliance with the pope.
In the middle of the 19th century, the state and church in Italy were against national unification.
The Lateran Treaty and Concordat of 1929 were signed by Mussolini and Pius XI.
The pope gained control over the area of Vatican City, which includes Saint Peter's Basilica.
State financial aid and a special position in the educational system were secured by the Church.
In return, the fascist state received the support of the Italian clergy and laity.
Like Napoleon before him, Mussolini sealed his position as dictator by a bargain with the Church.
He violated the terms of the Concordat as he saw fit.
Italy's political institutions underwent a steady evolution under Mussolini.
Political representation in the national legislative body was made possible by the corporate associations.
The Fascist party was the true power in all fields.
The party was similar to the Communist party of the Soviet Union.
It was the only legal party, it consisted of only a fraction of the total population, and its members were carefully drawn from the ranks of select youth organizations.
The Grand Council of Fascism was related to the Communist Central Committee.
The interlocking of party and state officials that existed in the Soviet system was similar to the way its members held high offices in the government.
Though it was anti-intellectual and stressed action, it still developed a distinctive ideology.
Mussolini admitted that it was mostly a negative movement against liberalism, democracy, rationalism, socialism, and pacifism.
Mussolini's personal experience and that of many other Europeans during and after the war made for a negative feeling.
They were let down by failed hopes of progress and happiness.
The Fascists found an answer to the emptiness with extreme nationalism.
One can get an emotional lift by forgetting one's problems as a person and by giving oneself to something larger and grander.
The Fascists said that the state is a living entity.
The state must expand in order to express its strength.
The liberal reliance on reason was replaced by a mystical faith in the fascist myth.
Intellectuals were looked upon as suspicious characters by fascists because of their private mental fancies.
Most Italian intellectuals cooperated with the Fascists in order to confirm Mussolini's view that they were lacking in honesty and courage.
The Fascist secret police struck down any active opposition who opposed the government.
Italians accepted fascists with enthusiasm.
The individual who used to feel alone and unneeded now has a new sense of belonging because of the paternalistic measures of the government and other means.
Mass rituals were staged in the great public squares of Rome and other cities, and many types of workers wore distinctive uniforms.
By 1930, fascists gained the support of most of the Italian people, as well as the admiration of conservatives abroad.
Fascist ideology supported rule by an elite.
The Fascists believed in permanent rule by their "natural" leaders after the abolition of capitalism.
These individuals would be capable of rising above selfinterest and being able to sense the character and desires of the nation.