The antiaircraft missile that brought down the passenger plane was fired by Separatists.
The war for Ukraine shows the complex dynamics of postcom munism.
The soviet union led to 15 new states in 1991.
Ukraine is located in the west of the former Soviet Union and is second in size to Russia.
With a large agricultural and industrial base and a relatively educated population, Ukraine seemed well positioned to integrate into Europe and the global economy.
The opposite has happened.
Politics has been conducted since 1991 with the help of the legacies of communism.
The difference between Ukrainians and Russians is not as clear as it is in some parts of the former Soviet Union.
Western Ukraine was part of the Habsburg Empire until 1918.
The region came under Soviet control after World War II because of a strong Ukrainian nationalism.
Eastern Ukraine has been under Russian rule since the end of the 18th century and is populated by a mix of Russian and Ukrainian speakers.
The division was compounded by the Soviet Union's federalism.
The Soviet Union was made up of 15 republics, but their power was limited.
Even though Nikita Khrushchev was the general secretary of the Soviet Union, he transferred control of the region of Crimea from the Russian Republic to the Ukrainian Republic.
In 1991, the divisions and identities of the Soviet Union became a source of conflict.
The future of the country was seen by many nationalists as part of Europe and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The separation from Russia and the loss of the Soviet Union was lamented by some in the east.
The decision to build a unitary state with a strong presidency did not help the tensions.
In 2010 the Ukrainian president was elected.
The stance of the former soviet republics was not in line with that of the president of Russia.
Under pressure from Putin, the president of the Ukranian government rejected plans to sign a free trade agreement with the EU.
In a repeat of events a decade before, thousands began protesting in the capital, Kiev, and the president responded with force.
Police had arrested nearly a hundred protesters by February.
As unrest spread, he fled to Russia.
Russia took advantage of the chaos to seize and annex the peninsula.
Some of the armed militias in Eastern Ukraine were made up of pro- Russian local citizens, while others were clearly Russian troops.
Ukrainian troops withdrew and local leaders proclaimed independence after heavy fighting left nearly 10,000 troops and civilians dead.
The 2015 cease- fire agreement ended most hostilities, but there are still skirmishes.
There is a serious threat to the war.
Ethnic and national conflict have become potent forces.
They can be reactions to the lack of concern for ethnic diversity under communism.
There is a risk of spil ing across borders when leaders use nationalism as a way to build support.
Dictators who promise simple answers and enemies to blame can build support in postcommunist states.
These dynamics threaten more authoritarianism and the risk of conflict that can have global repercussions.
There are concerns that China's growing nationalism could lead to ethnic conflict with non- Han Chinese minorities and/or military conflict with a neighboring state.
Understand communist ideology.
Discuss how communist systems wanted to eliminate inequality.
Compare the economic and political institutions that have been transformed by communist states.
The advanced democracies we studied in the last chapter have become the wealthiest and most powerful countries in the world.
Poverty and inequality are still a problem for these wealthy countries.
This concern goes to the heart of communist theory and practice, for communism has sought to create a system that limits individual freedoms in order to divide wealth in an equitable manner.
The formation of communist regimes around the world was driven by the vision of a world without economic distinctions.
Within less than a century most of the world's communist regimes began to fall despite the lofty ideals of communist thought.
We look at how communism attempted to reconcile freedom and equality and why communist systems have largely failed at that.
The ideas of Karl Marx will be looked at first.
We will look at how communism progressed from theory into practice as communist regimes were built around the world, most notably in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China.
We will study communism's demise after examining its dynamics.
We will uncover the enormous scope and vision of communist thought, the tremendous challenges of putting it into practice, the serious flaws and limitations that this implementation encountered, and the daunting work of building new political, social, and economic institutions from the rubble of communism's.
The countries that are still controlled by the communist party are shown in italics.
It is an ideology that seeks to create human equality by eliminating private property and market forces.