Chapter 16 -- Part 3: The Acceleration of Global Contact
Catarina refused to have sex with her husband because of his debts, infidelity, and hostility to her faith.
She found solace in renewed religious devotion, winning the admiration of priests and neighbors who came to her for spiritual comfort and to hear about her ecstatic visions.
Catarina lived out her life in the home of wealthy supporters after fourteen years of marriage.
Large crowds attended Catarina's funeral.
The leaders of Puebla began a campaign to have Catarina beatified, after her followers revered her as an unofficial saint.
The accounts of her life were published by her former confessors, who marveled at the preservation of her virginity through the perils of enslavement, long journeys at sea, and marriage.
Much of what we know about Catarina is derived from these sources.
The Spanish Inquisition, which oversaw the process of beatification, rejected Catarina's candidacy and forbade the circulation of images of her.
Despite the ban, popular reverence for Catarina de San Juan continued.
Europeans' contacts with the rest of the world increased due to the age of overseas expansion.
New ideas about the superiority of different races were created by these contacts.
European missionaries wanted to spread Christianity in both the New World and East Asia.
Exchanges of influential cultural and scientific ideas were led by the East-West contacts.
One of the most important justifications for European expansion was the conversion of indigenous people to Christianity.
More than 2,500 Franciscans, Dominicans, Jesuits, and other friars crossed the Atlantic in the following century after the first missionaries to the New World accompanied Columbus on his second voyage.
Jesuit missionaries were active in Japan and China before their teachings were banned.
Catholic friars sought an understanding of native cultures and languages as part of their effort to make Christianity comprehensible to indigenous people.
They were the most vociferous opponents of abuses committed by Spanish settlers.
Religion had been a central element of pre-Columbian societies and many, if not all, indigenous people were receptive to the new religion that addition to spreading Christianity, missionaries taught indigenous peoples European methods of agriculture.
Despite the success of initial conversion efforts, authorities could not prevent the merging of Catholic teachings with elements of pagan beliefs and practices.
Spanish conquistadors emphasized the need to bring Christianity to unbelievers in justifying their conquest of the Aztec and Inca civilizations.
Christianity and the oppression of their pre-existing religions were seen as another form of loss by the conquered.
The Aztec leaders' response to Franciscan missionaries was described in the first document.
The missionaries succeeded in converting a lot of the indigenous population to Catholicism.
In the second document, a firsthand account of the Spanish conquest written a few decades after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the author expresses satisfaction at the Catholic piety of some indigenous communities.
You have told us that we don't know who the Lord of the heavens and of the earth is.
You say that those we worship are not gods.
This way of speaking is completely new to us.
Our forebears who were in charge of us never said anything like this.
They left us this custom of worshiping our gods, in which they believed and which they worshiped all the time they lived here on earth.
We were taught all the ceremonies and sacrifice that we make.
Our gods told us that we were beholden to them and that we should live and serve before the sun came up and before there was daytime.
They said that the gods that we worship give us everything we need for our physical existence.
We all feel that the power and royal jurisdiction have been taken from us.
We will die before worshiping our gods.
To see how the natives assist in celebrating a holy Mass is something to be grateful for.
Both men, women and children, who are of the age to learn them, know all the holy prayers in their own languages and are obliged to know them.
They were taught to show great reverence to the monks and priests, and to receive them with lighted wax candles, and to ring the bells, when they went to their pueblos.
Columbus's arrival in 1492 started Iberian exploitation of the native population of the Americas.
In Europe and the colonies, there were vociferous debates about the nature of indigenous peoples and how they should be treated.
One of the earliest and most outspoken critics of the treatment of indigenous peoples was a Dominican friar named Bartolome de Las Casas.
King Charles I assembled a group of churchmen and lawyers in the city of Valladolid in the 1500s to debate the issue of Spain.
One side of the led by Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued that conquest and forcible conversion were necessary to save indigenous people from the horrors of human sacrifice, cannibalism, and idolatry.
Las Casas and his supporters depicted indigenous people as innocent children who deserved protection from more advanced civilizations.
Spanish king Charles I organized a debate in the city of Valladolid in the 15th century in which defenders of Spanish conquest and forcible conversion faced off against critics of these practices.
Audiences debated these questions in Europe.
The idea that the Spanish were cruel and brutal in their conquest and settlement of the Americas was derived from the denunciations of Spanish abuses by Las Casas.
The legend helped other European powers overlook their colonial violence and exploitation.
Rival European powers believe that the Spanish were cruel and brutal in their conquest of the Americas.
Europeans drew on myths about Africans' primitiveness and barbarity to defend slavery as they turned to Africa for new slaves.
A new level of racial inequality was fostered by the institution of slavery.
Africans gradually became seen as inferior to Europeans.
Europeans developed increasingly rigid ideas of racial superiority and superiority to safeguard the growing profits gained from plantation slavery after a transition from vague assumptions about Africans' non-Christian religious beliefs and general lack of civilization.
Europeans believed that blacks were destined to be slaves for the rest of their lives.
According to the Bible, all of the inhabitants of North Africa and Cush were cursed by Noah.
The religious and racial prejudices of the old country were brought to the Americas by Spanish settlers.
During the reconquista, this principle was used to distinguish Spaniards who had always been Christian from those who had converted to Islam.
The Spanish thought that the indigenous peoples of the Americas could not be compared to Jews and Muslims because they had never been exposed to Christianity.
Africans were in the same category as Jews and Muslims.
The Spanish decided that indigenous people could not be enslaved, while Africans and those of African descent could.
Spanish America from its first years was characterized by a high degree of racial mixing, which began as male conquistadors formed unions with women of high-ranking indigenous families.
The arrival of enslaved Africans in Mexico increased the mixing of people.
Many of these unions were forced, with Spanish men seeking concubines among indigenous women and enslaved women of African descent.
The children of these unions were viewed with suspicion by state and religious officials, and they suffered from a range of discrimination laws.
The genre of casta paintings, which emerged in the late 17th century in Mexico and depicted couples composed of individuals of different ethnic origin and the children produced of their unions, is what this painting is about.
The genre is inspired by the mixing of peoples in Spanish America.
Prior to Columbus's voyages, the peoples and products of Africa, Asia, and Europe DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch Europe played a small role in the trade world.
Europeans began to seek more direct and profitable access to the Afroeurasian trade world as the economy and population recovered from the Black Death.
Inventions borrowed from the East allowed explorers to undertake even more ambitious voyages.
The Spanish established new forms of governance after their conquests of the Caribbean islands and the Aztec Empire.
The arrival of Europeans resulted in huge population losses to native communities.
The exchange of germs, plants, and animals between the Old and New Worlds was one of the elements of disease.
The first truly global economy was created by these exchanges.
Europeans transported Africans to labor in the sugar plantations and silver mines of the New World as part of the transatlantic slave trade.
European nations vied for supremacy in global trade, with early Portuguese success in India and Asia being challenged first by the Spanish and then by the Dutch.
Europeans developed new ideas about cultural and racial differences as a result of increased contact with the outside world.
The nature of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and how they should be treated was a topic of debate in Spain and its colonies.
Europeans had long held negative attitudes about Africans, and as the slave trade grew, they began to express more rigid notions of racial inequality and to claim that Africans were inherently suited for slavery.
European missionaries were trying to spread Christianity in the New World.
Two years separated Martin Luther's attack on the Catholic Church in 1517 and Ferdinand Magellan's discovery of the Pacific Ocean in 1520.
Within a few years western Europeans' religious unity and notions of geography were shattered.
Europeans struggled to come to terms with religious differences among Protestants and Catholics at home and with the many new peoples and places they encountered abroad.
Europeans were fascinated by the new diversity, but often it resulted in suffering and violence.
Europeans went through decades of civil war, and indigenous peoples overseas went through massive population losses as a result of European warfare.
The trade in slaves that brought suffering and death to millions of Africans was condoned by both Catholic and Protestant religious leaders.
As a result of the voyages of discovery, European culture was fragmented, but they also played a role in state centralization and consolidation.
Competition to gain overseas colonies became part of European politics.
The Netherlands, England, and France used profits from colonial trade to build modernized, centralized states while Spain's enormous profits from conquest led to a weakened power.
There were two important consequences from this era of expansion.
The creation of enduring contacts among five of the seven continents of the globe was the first.
The peoples of the world were entwined in different forms of economic, social, and cultural exchange from the 16th century onward.
The growth of European power was the second.
Europeans assumed control over trade networks in Asia and Africa.
The era of European dominance began after China became the world's most powerful economy.
Explain the significance of each item.
The environmental impact of the movement of animals, plants, and microbes was inaugurated by Columbus.
The history of sugar plantations and slavery is explored.
The rise of global connections in the early modern period is an examination of the European experience in relation to the world's other empires and peoples.
Common myths about how the Spanish conquered native civilizations in the New World are being reexamined.
A study of the Portuguese empire in Asia draws on both European and Asian sources.
Before contact with Europeans and the impact of the Columbian exchange, it explores the complex societies and cultures of North America.
The narrator is following the paths and rivers used by the Spanish conquistadors.
Investigates the voyages of legendary Chinese admiral Zheng He, who may have reached the Americas decades before Columbus.
Marco Polo is the subject of a made-for-television film that follows him as he travels to China to establish trade with the emperor.
A young Aztec man watches a Mexican film depicting the brutality of the Spanish conquest and its social and religious impact.
Many of the maps and manuscripts in the Library of Congress relate to the period covered in this chapter.
There are helpful explanations of the origins and meaning of the indigenous documents on the website.