Chapter 27 -- Part 1: The Americas in the Age of Liberalism
The Yaqui people faced the dual pressures of the United States' westward expansion and Mexico's integration of northern borderlands.
There was change in the Americas after independence.
With the exception of Haiti's revolution, American nations gained independence with their colonial social orders mostly intact.
Slavery existed in the United States, Cuba, and Brazil until the second half of the 19th century.
The land of Spanish America was held by the elites.
Territorial expansion displaced most of the indigenous communities.
Millions of immigrants from Europe, the Middle East, and Asia settled in the Americas by 1900.
Political rivals were not able to share power despite the emergence of new political systems.
Liberal republicanism was the most common form of government.
There were exceptions, such as the monarchy that ruled Brazil until 1889 and the parliamentary system tied to Britain that developed in Canada.
The United States assumed an influential place in Atlantic and Pacific trade.
Latin America's new nations with weak internal markets and poorly consolidated political systems struggled to accumulate capital or industrialize.
After American nations gained their independence between 1783 and 1825, each began a long and often violent process of state-building.
The trust needed for political stability was not established by the new governments in Mexico and Argentina.
The Civil War in the United States and the struggle for independence in Cuba were both caused by long-standing tensions.
In order to establish political and economic frameworks, American nations reached for ideologies that existed in the Atlantic in the age of revolution.
Liberals wanted to create representative republics with strong central governments that protected individual rights, such as the right to buy and sell private property.
Colonies that became independent nations in the Americas all adopted liberal constitutions.
In its earliest form, the U.S. Constitution defined individual rights, but they were not equal to property rights.
Slaves were considered property.
The new government did not recognize the property of Indians and only property owners could vote.
Liberalism protected the small number of individuals and families who had dominated political power and economic resources since the colonial era.
Liberalism gave industrialists a free hand over their workers, created tools that allowed the wealthy and powerful to concentrate landownership in the countryside, and preserved slavery.
In Latin America, a small number of individuals and families have dominated political power and economic resources since the colonial era.
By the end of the 19th century liberalism was linked to other ideologies such as Social Darwinism and scientific racism.
The Caribbean Sea was inspired by this combination.
The lands that bound the Caribbean Sea in Central America and northern South America are encompassed by the Antilles.
The implementation of liberalism was different.
Before the Civil War, the United States deferred questions about federal power over local state authority and the legality of slavery.
After the North prevailed, liberal economic growth gave rise to business and industrial empires and stimulated the immigration of millions of people to provide cheap labor for the booming economy.
America wars of independence left behind a weak consensus about government, which led to long cycles of civil war across many countries.
There was a crisis of confidence because of the lack of a shared political culture.
Landowners refused to give up their local power to politicians in a distant capital.
If a rival group won power, it was feared that it would use its authority to crush its opponents, or that it would not abide by the rules and limits of the constitution.
Caudillos, strong leaders who came to power through their charisma and leadership abilities, were the ones who filled the power vacuum.
This form of leadership is called COW-deeh-ismoh.
Government by figures who rule through personal charisma and the support of armed followers in Latin America.
One of the best-known caudillos wasRosas, who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852.
To maintain his power,Rosas relied on the loyalty of his armed followers and his ability to cultivate a popular following through measures like the gradual abolition of slavery.
The rule of a caudillo often provided temporary stability in the midst of the struggles between liberals and conservatives, but they cultivated their own prestige at the expense of building stable political institutions.
Mexico was stirred by independence in 1810.
The Mexican Revolution was the first great social upheaval of the twentieth century.
Mexico lost its status as the most prosperous and important colony of the Spanish Empire in the century after these events.
As Central American provinces broke away and became independent republics, it lost most of its national territory.
Mexicans experienced political stabilization and economic growth in the second half of the 19th century when liberal leaders imposed order and attracted foreign investment.
Poor Mexico, so far from God, so close to the United States, is said to have been remarked on by Diaz.
States took lands from Mexico and Indian nations.
The territory stretching from the original Atlantic states to the Pacific Ocean should be absorbed by the United States.
The lands of Native American nations were claimed by the United States and Mexico.
The process of conquest and dispossession began with the arrival of Europeans in the Americas three centuries earlier.
The deaths of thousands and the destruction of cultures were caused by the forced removal of native peoples when national armies seized native lands.
In 1822, the general who led the war against Spain proclaimed himself emperor.
The southern provinces broke away when he was deposed a year later.
Regional caudillos and local bosses were in charge of power in Mexico.
Rival groups battled for control of the presidency as it changed hands frequently.
The most powerful of Mexico's caudillos, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, held the presidency ten times between 1833 and 1854.
The United States established a clearer vision of government.
There were disagreements about the power of the federal government relative to state governments, which played out in debates about the future of slavery and westward expansion.
The Civil War began in the 19th century.
U.S. merchants retained access to Atlantic markets and credit because they were integrated into the British Empire.
In the first half of the 19th century the North grew fastest, becoming the center of immigration, banking, and industrialization.
Slavery and tenant farming kept a lot of the population in the South at the economic margins.
Immigrants avoided areas where they had to compete with unfree labor because of slavery.
The economies of the U.S. and Latin America differed from the economies of the U.S. North and South.
The independence process in Latin America disrupted the export economies of agricultural and mineral commodities like sugar and silver, not the same as in the United States.
The major silver mine is in Mexico.
The most productive silver mine in the world was located in central Mexico.
It was one of the first places where the steam engine was used to pump water out of shafts.
During Mexico's war of independence, the flooded mine ceased to operate.
Private investors and the new government didn't have the money to restart the mine after independence.
Without capital and economic activity, tax revenues evaporated, public administration crumbled, and the national government became unmanageable as Mexico entered a vicious cycle.
In 1800 Mexico produced half the goods and services that the United States did, and by 1845 production had dropped to only 8 percent.
Mexico was vulnerable to expansionist pressure from the United States after independence.
Mexico's northern territories were included in the U.S. Southwest and West at independence.
The U.S. politicians, settlers, and land speculators were attracted to these territories.
In exchange for Mexican citizenship, settlers from the U.S. South petitioned the Mexican government for land grants in the province of Texas.
The settlers were encouraged by the U.S. government to declare the independence of Texas.
President James Polk expanded the nation's border after Texas and Florida became U.S. states in 1845.
Mexico ceded large tracts of land to the United States in the 19th century.
The Mexican-American War was fought over control of northern Mexico, which became the Southwest and West of the United States.
The war was not only fought on the border, but also in the Pacific, the Caribbean and Mexico City.
In order to start a war, three questions must be examined: 1st, that of justice, 2nd, and third, that of convenience.
Any hesitation in launching war would be either a crime or a lack of common sense.
Next comes the questions of feasibility and convenience for starting and maintaining hostilities with honor and honor, as well as the consequences of a war of this nature.
A foreign war against a powerful and advanced nation that has an impressive navy.
The ease with which we would be able to maintain our remaining territories has been overstated, as well as the social advantages which would accrue to us by accepting a peace now.
To sustain such illusions, it would be necessary to underestimate the spirit of enterprise of the North American people in industrial and commercial endeavors, to misunderstand their history and their tendencies, and to assume in our own spirit less resistance than we have already shown toward the sincere friends of progress.
The treaty would bring a change that would be beneficial to us, as has been claimed, only through such illusions.
The war that was waged against a weaker nation was one of the most unjust waged by a stronger against a weaker nation.
The example of European monarchies in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory was an example of a republic.
From the beginning of the movement to its final consummation, there was a conspiracy to acquire territory out of which slave states could be formed for the American Union.
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Santa Anna unintentionally ushered in a new era of liberal consolidation and economic reform by triggering a backlash against his sale of Mexican territory along the northern border to the United States in a deal known as the Gadsden Purchase.
Many Mexicans thought Santa Anna betrayed the nation and supported a new generation of liberals.
The presidency of Comonfort began.
Liberal reformers wanted to make everyone equal under the law and establish property ownership as a national goal.
The Juarez Law abolished legal privileges for military officers and members of the clergy in La Reforma.
The law was written by the Minister of Justice, who was an Indian from Oaxaca.
The most important force in consolidation of Mexico's political system after independence was Juarez, who began life as a farmer but earned a law degree.
The abolition of "corporate lands", meaning lands owned by groups or institutions, such as the Catholic Church, was an even more consequential measure.
Liberals wanted to replace the landholdings with small rural farm owners.
The Mexican law barred corporate landholdings.
The reforms caused a backlash from the church.
The Catholic Church excommunicated anyone who swore loyalty to the new constitution.
Conservatives started a civil war called the Wars of Reform.
Liberal forces led by Benito Juarez defeated the conservatives and then invited the French emperor Napoleon III to invade Mexico.
Napoleon III wanted to reestablish France's American empire.
He used to say that France had a natural role to play in Mexico because of a common "Latin" origin.
The French army invaded Mexico.
The Battle of Puebla became a national holiday in the United States.
Napoleon III installed his Austrian cousin as emperor of Mexico.
The Juarez led a guerilla war against the French.
The U.S. ended the Civil War in 1865.
France was pressured to remove its troops by the United States.
Juarez's nationalists were aided by surplus Civil War weaponry that flooded across the border into Mexico.
Conservatives had colluded with another country to install a foreign leader.
The restored republic was ruled by Benito Juarez and Abraham Lincoln.
Both grew up in rural areas to become liberal lawyers.
They became military and political leaders.
The decade between the Wars of Reform and Juarez's restoration of the republic can be compared to the U.S. Civil War, in which questions that had lingered since independence were violently resolved and liberalism emerged as the dominant political philosophy.
Pedro I, the son and heir to the Portuguese emperor, ruled as a monarchy after Brazil gained independence in 1822.
After Napoleon's armies crossed the Pyrenees from France to invade the Iberian Peninsula, the process of creation of a Brazilian monarchy began.
The Portuguese royal family, many of the government's bureaucrats, and most of the aristocracy fled to Portugal's colony of Brazil after Napoleon deposed the Spanish crown.
This would be the first time a European empire would be ruled from one of its colonies.
Before the seat of Portuguese power relocated to Brazil, colonial policies restricted many activities in the country in order to keep it subservient to Portugal.
Brazil gained its first printing press, library, and military and naval academies, as well as schools for engineering, medicine, law, and the arts, only after the arrival of the imperial court.
A republican military coup took place in 1889.
It established a two-chamber parliamentary system and a role for the emperor in political affairs.
Pedro I abdicated in 1831 and left behind a regency in the name of his son, Pedro II.
Pedro II assumed the throne at the age of fourteen and ruled Brazil for 39 years.
The depiction of Brazilian patriarchal and slave society social hierarchy is shown through differences of gender, race, and age.
The members of the household are ordered by their rank.
Brazil had a colonial past.
The society had the largest number of African slaves in the Americas.
It was dependent on Britain as its mother country, Portugal, had been in the 18th century.
The "Friendship Treaty" allowed British industrial goods to enter Brazil with very low tariffs.
Brazilian industrialization was hampered by cheap British imports.
British economic and political influence, as well as special privileges enjoyed by British citizens in Brazil, were examples of the influence that European powers and the United States had over weaker countries after independence.
After they have ceased to be colonies, the establishment of political and economic influence over regions ensues.
Slavery was abolished in former Spanish-American colonies after independence.
The British navy suppressed the Atlantic slave trade after the end of slavery in British colonies.
Cuba, the United States and Brazil were Colonies of slavery into the 19th century.
In each of these countries the question of abolition became entwined with the disputes over the nature of government and authority -- federal unionism versus states' rights in the United States, independence for Cuba, and monarchy versus republicanism in Brazil.
Africans and their descendants were slaves in the Americas.
Descendants of slaves brought from Africa anywhere in the New World had different experiences in slavery and freedom.
The nature of slave regimes in different economic regions, patterns of manumission, the nature of abolition, and the proportion of the local population they represented were some of the factors that shaped their experiences.
Sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cotton were some of the crops that supplied distant global markets and the settlement of Africans as slaves was the most intense.
Cotton from Alabama was spun by looms in New England or Britain.
African slaves played many other roles.
Slavery was common in port cities where it was easy to get into the slave trade and there was a demand for street laborers.
In the Americas, enslaved women were forced into domestic service, a role that gave them social prestige, but also made them vulnerable to sexual abuse.
The British artist painted this scene after the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
Being "sold south" was frightening.
The people who were sold were sent to plantations where the labor regimes were harsh.
The artist depicts both the slave families and the white, mixed, and free black traders.
In other slave societies, the experience of being sold south in the United States was the same as it was in the United States.
Oriente, the easternmost province of Cuba, has a fearsome sugar plantation regime.
Slaves in Brazil were at risk of being sent to Portuguese colonies in west and central Africa.
The threat of being sent to a more brutal region was a terrible power that was wielded over slaves, but so was the power to destroy a family by selling away husbands or wives, or separating parents from young children.
Slave regimes in the Americas were able to survive because of the terror that masters wielded over slaves, and these threats were powerful tools in maintaining slave owners' domination over enslaved people.
The process of political independence was intertwined with slavery and abolition.
The United States and Haiti have different relationships with independence and abolition.
Haiti independence was achieved in a revolution in which slaves revolted against their oppressors.
The United States gained its independence in a war that did not result in widespread slave revolt, and it created a liberal political regime that preserved the institution of slavery.
When other American colonies contemplated independence, they considered the U.S. and the Haitian experience.
In colonies where the population was smaller, independence movements proceeded slower.
Slaves far from the Caribbean wore pendants with images of Haitian British efforts to keep their colonies in North America, as well as a combination of moral and economic appeals for the abolition of slavery in British territories, which led to the end of the slave trade to the Americas.
The British offered freedom to slaves who joined them when they fought to prevent the independence of the United States.
After the British defeat and withdrawal, many slaves dispersed to Florida, the Caribbean, and West Africa.
The British Parliament voted to abolish slavery in Canada and Britain's Caribbean colonies the following year after British abolitionists pressured them to end the Atlantic slave trade.
The British government wanted to reduce economic competition.
The slave trade was suppressed by a British naval squadron.
The squadron captured slave ships, freed the slaves they carried, and resettling them in a colony the British government established in Sierra Leone to settle former slaves who had sided with Britain in the American Revolution.
In Spanish America, independence forces enlisted the participation of slaves and offered them freedom in return.
Slavery was abolished in the Northern states of the United States.
The gradual form of abolition was instituted by the laws of the Americas in the 19th century.
By the time slavery was abolished in Latin American countries, most people of African descent had already gained their freedom because of the combination of free womb laws and manumission as a reward for military service.
Slavery was abolished in parts of New England and Mexico after independence, but it lasted until the end of the Civil War in the U.S. South.
When Texas became part of the United States, the Mexican government abolished slavery, but it was still legal.
Slavery was abolished in British territories.
Civil wars in Latin America resulted in the abolition of slavery.
Brazil was the last country to abolish slavery.
In the United States, the questions of nation building and slavery remained the same.
The determination of Southern states to protect the slave regime was a part of the Constitution.
The political compromise between the North and South was tested when slavery was abolished in Northern states.
Even as slavery was abolished in the last Spanish-American republics, armed confrontations erupted in Kansas over whether that territory would be incorporated as a state permitting slavery.
When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, the tension between the North and the South reached a breaking point.
The Confederate States of America was formed because of the fear that Lincoln might abolish slavery.
Lincoln waged a war to preserve the territorial integrity of the United States.
The deaths of over 750,000 people resulted from the civil war.
Lincoln tried to get the Confederate states to rejoin the Union.
Slavery was abolished in all states that were against the Union on January 1, 1863.
It was intended to bring the rebel states back, not to abolish slavery altogether, but it freed slaves only in states that had seceded.
The demise of slavery was accelerated by the proclamation.
After the Northern armies decimated their industrial, agricultural, and military capacity, the Southern rebel states surrendered in 1865.
The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery months later.
The rights of people who were formerly enslaved were recognized in subsequent amendments.
segregation is a form of racism but not the only one.
Race relations in the northern and western states of the United States were similar to those in Latin America, where informal practices such as discrimination in employment, housing, and lending perpetuated prejudice against African Americans.
Cuba and Brazil were on the path to abolition.
The Cuban rebels fought for independence from Spain during the Ten Years' War.
Many slaves and free blacks joined the failed anticolonial struggle.
The children of slaves born since 1868, as well as slaves over the age of sixty, were granted freedom by the Spanish authorities.
The Spanish forces had defeated the nationalists, but the conflict had begun the process of abolition.
The freedom to children born to slaves was granted in Brazil in 1871 and 1885.
These laws were only half measures, aimed at placating abolitionists without disrupting the economic reliance on slave labor.
Children freed under the free womb laws were apprentices to their mother's master until they reached adulthood.
The laws freed masters from their obligations to care for elderly slaves while preserving access to the labor of the children of slaves.
Laws from the top down weren't the only ones that brought about abolition.
The abolition was made possible by the pressure exerted by slaves.
Slave resistance intensified in the late 19th century.
Slaves were able to escape in growing numbers.
The costs of slavery had become unsustainable.
The abolition of slavery in the Americas was gradual and involved pressure applied by slaves and free blacks.
Different versions of how abolition came to pass can be found from sources on abolition.
In many cases, planters and politicians credited themselves for abolition, which they presented as a sign of their virtue and enlightenment.
The experiences of slaves tell a different story than the one of abolition.
One of the political leaders in favor of the abolition of slavery was Joaquim Nabuco.
Nabuco shows how ending slavery would benefit the nation.
Only after slaves and masters are freed from the yoke that keeps them from free life can we apply ourselves to this serious program of reforms.
The ideal of the Fatherland that we Abolitionists uphold is a nation in which all are free; where, lured by the honesty of our institutions and by the freedom of our system, European immigration will bring to the tropics.
The last years of slavery were marked by the efforts of slaves to escape from their plantations.
A group of slaves fled from the outskirts of Capivari.
More than one hundred able-bodied men, women, old people, and children were led by a black man named Pio.
They traveled to the city of Porto Feliz.
The fugitive slaves fought off their attackers as police units surrounded them.
They walked calmly through the city's streets at night.
They won at least two skirmishes with the police.
The fifty cavalrymen set out to surround and detain the rebels.
The National Army did not want to serve as slave hunters.
The young man made no secret of his feelings for abolition.
He intended to not attack the slaves.
The slaves were descending the opposite side of the pass from atop a hill.
The commander sent out a man who was also an anti-slavery activist to encourage the blacks to leave the forest.
The man set out on foot after dismounting.
The leader of the fugitives, a black man named Pio, charged at the soldier and killed him with a scythe.
The soldiers shot and killed the black man.
The officer did not allow the slaughter of the fugitives.
He was acquitted by a military tribunal in Sao Paolo.
The slaves continued on their journey.
At the edge of the Serra do Mar, near the peaks where the Cubatao River flows, they were hunted down like wild animals.
The police and bush captains killed people.
There were less than twenty fugitives who made it to Santos.
Pio's body was taken to Sao Paulo and opened up at a police station.
The autopsy showed that the black leader, who fought off organized forces, and who marched with a commanding presence through wealthy towns, suffered from hunger at the moment in which he gave his life for the freedom of his race.
One of Brazil's most important regions was the coffee-planting province of Sao Paulo.
We refer to the flight of slaves from agricultural establishments and the abandonment of agriculture.
The public spirit was alarmed by the events because of the effects of the sudden withdrawal of workers from the plantations, as well as the dangers posed to public security on the highways and in the towns through which the bands of fleeing slaves passed.
Pedro Americo's painting depicts a slave family kneeling before a figure that represents liberty.