Russia retained its own military legitimacy of the border between the two countries.
Economics claimed that it was a British rule.
The relationship between Russia and the former Soviet repub deteriorated in 2016 after Pakistan restricted move lics.
One of the main transportation lines linking European ment across the boundary and building hardened border ter Russia to central Siberia cuts across northern Kazakhstan.
Several deaths and at least 23 injuries were caused by two days of military clashes at one border crossing and the area's rail and pipeline links to the outside world.
Turkey has deep connections with Central Asia.
The model of a modern secular state from cooperation with Russia and China outweighs the Muslim heritage was the conclusion of Turkey in the early 2000s.
It's not clear if the Turkish disadvantages.
Turkey's interest in China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Central Asia declined after 2011.
The SCO wants to enhance trade with Turkey, which has a tense relationship with Russia.
It has become more complicated in its relations with other countries and its importance has diminished in Tajikistan, all of which are Russian allies.
The collapse of the Soviet Union changed the membership of the SCO.
International treaty organizations hold annual military exercises.
In 2012 the CSTO was weakened by the exit of Uzbekistan.
Iran is a major trading partner of several Central Asian countries and offers a good route to the ocean.
Central Asia is a poor region because of its old and deep cultural links with Iran.
The Iranian government is near the bottom of almost every list of indicators in Afghanistan.
Problems with moderately high levels of health and education, a legacy of Afghan refugees in Iran, and tensions between the two of the social programs of their former communist regimes are some of the problems other Central Asian countries have.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the west Caspian Basin and the northeastern industrial systems of Central Asia experienced a decline in economic activity.
Although most of Central Asia experienced solid eco Western oil companies to exploit its oil reserves, including a nomic growth in the first 15 years of the new millennium, US$37 billion deal with Chevron in 2016 and has received expansion was based primarily on the extraction of natu.
When the world's oil and gas wealth made it one of the world's energy prices fell in 2015, the region's economy went through a brief recession.
There were more problems that resulted from the simultaneous 2009.
After the drop in Chinese and Russian energy prices in 2015, the economy of the country again fell.
The addi Organization is boosted by the region's landlocked position.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan retained many aspects of the old command Economic Development in Central Asia economy, which was run by the government.
One of the world's largest cotton exporting countries, as well as having gold and natural-gas deposits, is Uzbekistan.
Cotton production is threatened by Central Asian industries that rely on ronmental degradation.
When inefficient state management and widespread corruption ended, the industrial base collapsed, leading to widespread poverty.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, certain well- connected individuals tried to privatize its indus.
After the fall of communism, Kyrgyzstan became very wealthy.
The largest supply of freshwa Asian country or region could be considered prosperous in Central Asia, which will likely become increasingly global standards.
Its mineral reserves are substantial and it is the most developed valuable.
A single has the best prospects.
The labor market that ranges between 0 and 1 is a component of the 3 gender inequality index.
Central Asia has some of the world's largest oil and gas deposits and has recently become a major center for drilling and exploration.
Central Asia can't easily export its products because of its location.
The problem has been solved with the construction of pipes, and others are being planned.
The decline in the Russian economy is related to pollution.
This sea has been a major blow to the country because most of the oil is located under it.
A new gas line to China gave the country an economic boost, but worried when Russia stopped buying gas.
The massive Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan- India (TAPI) line was started in 2015.
Some experts fear that the project could be halted because of tensions between India and Pakistan.
On the positive side, the state-run economy of Turkmenistan is inefficient and it is cut off from many global economic institutions.
The oldest fossil fuel industry in Central Asia is located in Azerbaijan.
Since then, the economy of Azerbaijan has been volatile.
The country has not enacted adequate market reforms and is too dependent on oil according to critics.
The high-tech economy was impacted by the deteriorating economic conditions in 2016 as Rare earth elements form crucial components of the high-tech economy.